The success of a dairy industry depends on the reproductive performance of its cows so as to meet the growing demand of milk and milk products. The lactation cycle of a cow depends upon the cow’s reproductive ability to get pregnant. The chemical mediators, called hormones released during and after pregnancy are required for the proper development of the mammary gland and production of milk producing cells in the alveoli. The important hormones like prolactin and somatotropin shut down the hormones needed for reproduction of the animal and growth of the ovarian follicles. These hormonal actions are much needed for maintaining the production and reproduction processes in the animals.
The use of chemicals or antibiotics to manage the reproductive disorders is the practice which is been continued since last many years and even today allopathy is the major system of medicine followed by masses. Irrespective of several hazards associated with these chemicals and drugs, people use these products because of the lack of a suitable alternative which is natural and safe. The dangers (e.g. development of bacterial resistance) which have arose due to the use of such harmful chemicals and antibiotics have even alarmed the scientific community to think about an alternative cure.
Major reproductive disorders in Ruminants
Anestrous may be caused by many factors associated with management, nutrition, breeding, hormonal imbalance etc. Eliminating such factors will prove useful in reducing anestrus in cows and buffaloes with varied degree of success.
Retained Placenta/ Retention of fetal membrane
The placenta is a connecting link between dam and fetus. It is a membrane that transfers nutrients from the dam to the calf during pregnancy. Generally, a Cow push out its fetal membranes by 6 hours, and some even after 12 hours of parturition. The retention of fetal membranes after 12 hours has several ill effects on reproductive performance of the animal. Many postpartum diseases, reduced milk production etc. may be its immediate consequences. Retained placenta is associated with abortion, dystocia, and multiple births.
Most commonly, uterine infections are seen in ruminants during the post parturition period. Many specific infectious conditions have a severe impact on production and reproductive performance of the animals like, dystocia, endometritis, and retained placenta. The organism most commonly associated with uterine disease in cattle is Actinomyces pyogenes. In addition, the gram-negative anaerobes Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides melaninogenicus frequently associated with A. pyogenes. Unhygienic calving conditions and traumatic obstetric techniques predispose the animals to uterine infections.
A repeat breeder is generally defined as a cow or buffalo that has not conceived after three or more services associated with true estrus. A repeat breeding animal has a normal or nearly normal estrus cycles as well as genital tract and even though it has been bred three or more times by a fertile bull semen but had failed to conceive. It is always difficult to diagnose the exact etiology of repeat breeding since many factors can, and mostly do, contribute to a failure to get conceived or maintain full term pregnancy. The cause may be a herd problem or an individual cow problem.
Some other common problems leading to repeat breeding and reproductive disorders include hormonal problems like cystic ovarian disease, delayed ovulation, blocked oviducts, anatomical deformity and defects of the genital tract as well as early embryonic mortality.
The history of use of herbs for curing the reproductive disorders shares the era centuries ago and even today it is been used effectively against various reproductive affections. The obvious reasons of not going for antibiotics (e.g. development of bacterial resistance) and other chemicals to treat such cases have led to an increased demand of an alternative therapy. A number of herbs are known to possess excellent property to cure such reproductive problems. The important herbs playing crucial role in that are,
- Plumbago zeylanica.
- Leptadenia reticulate
- Aristolochia indica
- Citrullus colocynthis
EXAPAR is an exclusive combination of standardized and highly efficacious medicinal herbs with a potent ecbolic activity. In addition, the drug induces an effective uterine cleansing action through activation of uterine secretions. It also helps in the improvement of uterine tonicity thereby, expediting the process of uterine involution. Exapar is an ideal herbal choice for both the treatment and prevention of retained placenta in cow, buffalo, ewe and doe. The direct economic losses due to infertility, reduction in milk production, delayed uterine involution and postpartum anoestrus are minimized with the use of this formulation.
JANOVA capsule contains the pulverized mixture of rare medicinal herbs encapsulated in hard gelatin capsule. The constituent herbs and their phytoactive constituents present in Janova mimic the gonadotropin like action; synchronize the release of physiological hormones for inducing ovulatory oestrus. Janova capsule is non-hormonal formulation and unlike hormones and their synthetic analogues, does not interfere in normal reproductive cycle and lactation.
Ayurvet’ Exapar and Janova are two such polyherbal solutions which has not only provided the best solutions to the farmer to enhance their animal’s reproductive performance but has also played role in implementing calf a year programme successfully.