Effect of dietary lipid levels on growth performance of Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fingerlings

Published on: 2/2/2010
Author/s : Abd Elhamid Eid and khaled Mohamed; Dept. of Animal and Fish Production- Fac. of Agriculture

 

Abstract

This research was conducted to study the effect of lipid levels on growth performance of fingerlings Sea bass. Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fingerlings with an average body weight 1.2±.0.2g were fed one of four compound diets containing 50% crude protein with different level of lipids, ranging from 10 to 16 g/100 g. The highest weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were obtained for group of Sea bass fingerlings fed diet containing 14% lipid level. The lowest weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were obtained for group of Sea bass fingerlings fed diet containing 10% lipid level. No significant differences in body composition were observed among fish fed different lipid levels. However, there was a strong liner relationship (P≤0.05) between dietary lipid level and liver lipid. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) increased with dietary lipid levels.

It could be concluded that the optimum lipid level for optimum performance of Sea bass fingerlings was 14% at protein level of 50%.

Key words: Lipid requirements, growth, fingerlings, Sea bass.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

European Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is an important commercial fish species in Mediterranean Aquaculture where it reach up to 20% of total fish production (Torrecillas et al., 2007).Although, the production of this species for stock enhancement is now a well- controlled process that results in the release of hundred of thousands of fingerlings annually, nevertheless , the nutritional requirements of this species have not been well defined (Kent et al., 2001) More information of this carnivorous marine species is needed to improve growth and feed efficiency and to minimize waste outputs to ensure  economical and environmental sustainability of sea bass culture (Drawbridge and Kent, 2001). Dietary lipid plays a major role in providing a source of  energy and essential fatty acids, especially for carnivorous fish as these species have a limited ability to utilize carbohydrates as an energy sources (Oliva-Teles 2000; Sargent et al., 2002, Kim and Lee, 2005). The increase in digestible energy content of fish diets, by lipid supplementation, has been shown to have a protein sparing effect, therefore reducing nitrogen losses to the environment (Cho and Bureau, 2001). Several studies have shown that providing adequate energy with dietary lipids can minimize the use of more high-priced protein as an energy source (Peres and Oliva-Teles, 1999, 2001; Ai et al., 2004; Hung et al., 2004; Kim and Lee, 2005). Therefore, an adequate lipid level in the diet is important for the growth performance of fish and product quality (Hamre et al., 2004; Tibbetts et al., 2005).      

The objective of the present study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth performance, feed efficiency and body composition of Sea bass fingerlings.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Diet preparation

Four isonitrogenous diets were formulated (Table 1). They were based on fish meal and Soy bean meal as the protein source. These diets formulated to containing four lipid levels 10%,12%,14% and 16% ( fish oil and corn oil) ,respectively (Table 1). The diets were pelleted using grinder of kitchen aid with a 1.5 mm diameter and kept frozen until they used. Diets and body composition without viscera were analyzed for crude protein, crude lipid crude fiber and ash according to AOAC (1995) as shown in Table 2 and 5.

During the growth period (120 days), each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate tanks of fish. Feed was offered by hand in two meals / day (8:00h and 15:00 hours) at 3% of body weight and the amount of diets were readjusted after each weighing.

 

Table (1): Composition of the experimental diets

Ingredient (g/100g)

Diet

10%

12%

14%

16%

Fish meal (70%)

53

54

54

54

Soybean meal (44%)

27

27

27

27

Yellow corn

13

10

8

6

Fish oil

2

3

4

5

Corn oil

3

4

5

6

Vit mix1  

1

1

1

1

Min mix2

1

1

1

1

Total

100

100

100

100

   1. 1-Vitamin mixture (per kg feed): 10000 I.U. Vit. A, 1000 I.U. Vit. D3, 50 mg Vit. E,

   100 mg Vit. B1, 100 mg Vit. B2, 100 mgVit. B6, 10 mg Vit. B12, 20 mg Vit. K3, 200 mg Vit. C,

   500 mg Nicotinic acid, 500 mg Inositol, 200 mg Ca-Pantothenate, 20 mg Folic acid,

   5000 mcg Biotin and 2000 mg Cholinchloride.

   2-Mineral mixture (per kg feed) : 16.40 g Monocalciumphosphate, 5.50 mg MgSO4. 7H2O,

   7.53 g NaC1, 4.50 g K2SO4, 2.0 g Fe-Gluconat, 0.40 g ZnSO4.7H2O, 50 mg MnSO4. H2O,

   15 mg CuSO4, 4.75 mg KJ and 0.25 mg CoCl2.6H2O.

 

   Table (2): Proximate analysis of the experimental diets

Chemical analysis

10%

12%

14%

16%

Moisture

6.80

6.90

6.70

6.80

Crude protein

50.10

50.50

50.30

50.20

Crude fat

10.20

12.10

14.60

16.00

Crude fiber

2.70

2.60

2.60

2.60

Crude ash

10.80

10.90

10.80

10.80

NFE1

19.40

17.00

15.00

13.60

Gross Energy  (kcal/100gm) 2

458.99

469.37

483.66

490.59

P/E Ratio3

109.15

107.59

103.99

102.32

      1. Nitrogen free extract.

      2. Based on 5.65 Kcal/g protein, 9.45 Kcal/g fat and 4.1 carbohydrate Kcal/g (NRC,1993)

      3. Mg Protein/ Kcal/kg

 

Experimental design

Sea bass fingerlings were obtained from Ashtom El gamel, Port-Said governorate. Fish were acclimated to laboratory conditions for 2 weeks before being randomly distributed into fiberglass tank of 300-L water capacity. Fish of 1.2±0.2 g initial body weight were distributed into 12 experimental tank (300L) in triplicate groups of 250 fish each.  Water temperature was maintained at 25ºC by a 250- watt immersion heater with thermostat. Water temperature and dissolved oxygen were recorded daily (by metteler Toledo, model 128.s/No1242), Other water quality parameters including pH and ammonia every two days by pH meter (Orion model 720A,s/No 13062) and ammonia meter (Hanna ammonia meter). The salinity was measured be refractometer. The average water quality criteria of all tanks are presented in Table 3.The experiment was lasted for 120 day. All fish in each tank were weighed every 10 days.

     Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, liver weight, hepatosomatic index, liver fat and survival were calculated. Also, economical evaluations for the experimental diets were determined.

 

Table (3): Average water quality parameters in the experimental tanks 

Parameter

 

Temperature

25±1ºC

Oxygen (mg/L)

5±1

Ammonia NH3(mg/L)

0.02±0.001

PH

7.0±0.50

Salinity ppt

14.0±0.8

    *Means ±SD.

 

Statistical analysis

One-way analysis (P≤0.05) of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's multiple range test (1955) was used to compare means of the four different groups. All statistical were performed using (SPSS. Inc., Chicago, 12). The used model was Yij =µ+Ti + eij

      Where

       µ = over all mean.  

      Yij =the observation of the individual from T treatments           

      Ti= the fixed effect of T the diet.

Eij= the experimental random error associated with individual J.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The growth performance of Sea bass fingerlings which fed different diets are shown in Table 4. Average body weight (g) of Sea bass fed experimental diets at the start did not differ, indicating that groups were homogenous. At the end of the experimental period (120 days) the group of fish fed 14% lipid, had a significantly (P≤0.05) higher body weight gain than the rest of experimental groups. The lowest body weight (12.3 g) was achieved by group of fish fed lipid level 10%. On the other hand, the group of fish fed on 14% and 16% lipid levels had a significantly (P≤0.05) higher SGR than the rest of experimental groups. However, SGR were 1.94, 2.04, 2.19 and 2.13 for groups of fish fed on diet containing 10, 12, 14 and 16% lipids, respectively. The PER and FCR and their FE  of group of fish fed on 14% lipid level was significantly (P≤0.05) improved in comparison with fish fed on 10% and12% lipid level followed by group of fish fed on 16% level of lipid. Survival rate was taken also the same trend. These results are in agreement with Shkaras et al (1989). They reported that the optimum dietary lipid level for Asian seabass fingerlings between 15-18%. However, increased dietary lipid level to more than 16% did not improve weight gain, SGR, and PER of sea bass fingerlings. Some authors reported that high dietary lipid level may depress growth in some species (Pei et al., 2004; Du et al., 2005). Other fish spices, Asian and Japanese sea bass have shown that the requirement of lipid around 17% (Williams et al., 2003 and Ai et al., 2004).

 

 

The growth reduction at high lipid levels could be due to the limited ability to digest and absorb high amounts of lipid, a reduction in feed intake, excess lipid accumulation in liver and other visceral organs, or creation of dietary or metabolic imbalances (Luo et al., 2005).

 

Table (4): Growth performance, liver fat content of Sea bass fed the experimental diets.

Parameters

Diet

10%

12%

14%

16%

Average Initial body weight (g)

1.2±0.23

1.2±0.23

1.3±0.23

1.2±0.23

Average Final body weight (g)

12.3±2.2 d

13.8±0.3 c

17.9±0.20 a

15.5±0.2 b

Average Weight gain (g)

11.1±1.1d

12.6±1.2 c

16.6±0.9 a

14.3±0.10 b

SGR (%)1      

1.94±0.02 c

2.04±0.01b

2.19±0.02 a

2.13±0.09a

Feed intake (g)

26.64±0.4d

26.84±0.2c

29.88±0.10a

28.60±0.2 b

Feed conversion ratio 2

2.4±0.10c

2.13±0.1b

1.8±0.10a

2.0±0.1b

Protein efficiency ratio 3

0.83±0.01d

0.92±0.02 c

1.11±0.01 a

0.99±0.10 b

Feed efficiency 4

0.42±0.1d

0.47±0.10 c

0.55±0.10a

0.50±0.10 b

Liver weight (g)**

0.55±0.01d

0.61±0.01c

0.78±0.01b

0.80±0.01a

HSI (%)5

4.47±0.1d

4.55±0.1c

4.61±0.12b

5.16±0.01a

Liver fat (% wet mater)

3.69±0.1d

4.02±0.2c

5.07±0.12b

5.20±0.2a

Survival rate (%)

42±1.0 d

50±1.0 c

64±1.0 a

59±1.0 b

*Average values of fish weight and feed intake (means ± S.E.M) were used as experimental units for the statistical analysis of growth performance.

**Average of liver weight and liver lipid (means ± S.E.M) were calculated from 10 fish.

***. Means in the same line not sharing a common superscript letter are significantly different (P≤0.05).

  • 1- Specific growth rate = (100 x (Ln final wt (g) - (Ln initial wt (g)) / days.
  • 2- Feed conversion = feed intake (g) / body weight gain (g).
  • 3- Protein efficiency ratio (PER) = gain in weight (g) / protein intake.
  • 4- Feed efficiency = body weight gain (g) / dry feed intake (g).
  • 5- Hepatosomatic index = liver wt / fish wt X100.

 

The FCR were significantly lower (P≤0.05) for fingerling sea bass fed a diet containing 14% lipid than the rest of experimental groups. The FCR values were compared favorably to FCR observed in other studies with marine fish (Williams et al., (2003). The fish with the higher growth consumed more feed and consumed a high amount of lipid than the fish fed the high lipid diet. Because protein retention is generally regulated by non-energy input of the diet, PER is a good measure of the "protein sparing effect" of lipid (Lie et al., 1988). The group of sea bass fingerlings fed diets containing 14 and 16% lipid  had a significantly higher PER than the rest of experimental groups. Many studies demonstrated the result of a protein sparing effect of lipid (Oliva-Teles, 2001, 2002; Boujared et al., 2004).

There were a strong relationship (r =0.96) between the dietary lipid levels and the lipid in the liver (Table 4). This agrees with many other studies that have shown that dietary lipid levels correlate strongly with liver lipid content (Nanton et al., 2001).

In all experimental groups, liver weight, liver fat and hepatosomatic index increased significantly (P≤0.05) with increasing level of lipids from 10% to 16% .The accumulation of fat in liver of sea bass fingerlings fed diets containing 14 and 16% lipid suggests that white sea bass have a limited ability to metabolize lipids (Lopez et al., 2006).  The white sea bass my be similar to the Asian sea bass, which are known to accumulate excess lipid in the liver because they have only limited capacity to oxidize lipid as a source of metabolic energy (Williams et al., 2003). Survival was significantly higher for group of Sea bass fed diet containing 14% lipid than the rest of experimental groups.

 

 

Table 5. body composition (on wet weight basis)of sea bass fingerlings fed the experimental diets.

Parameters

Lipid level (%)

10

12

14

16

Moisture

79.4±0.10

79.5±0.2

79.4±0.2

79.3± 0.1

Crude Protein

16.5 a ±0.2

16.4 a ±0.1

16.6 a ±0.2

16.3 a ±0.1

Lipid

1.9 a ±0.1

1.9a ±0.2

2.0 a ±0.1

2.1a ±0.1

Ash

2.2 a ±0.1

2.2 a ±0.1

2.0 a ±0.1

2.3 a ±0.1

Means+ S.E.M. of triplicate groups.

Means in the same row sharing the same superscript are not significantly different (P≤0.05).

 

The effect of dietary lipid levels on body composition is presented in table 5. Dietary lipid level had no significant effect (P≤0.05) on moisture, lipid, protein and ash content. In agreement with Lopez et al. ( 2006).

 

Economic Evaluation

Calculation of the economical efficiency of the tested diets was based on the costs of feed because the other costs were equal for all studied treatments. As described in Table (6) feed costs (L.E) were the highest for the 16% level of lipid diet and gradually decreased with decreasing the levels of lipids on the other diets. These results indicate that increasing lipid levels in sea bass diets reduced the feed cost/kg. However, the relative cost to the lowest lipid level 10% was 90, 78 and 89 for lipid levels 12, 14 and 16% respectively. It was found that lipid level 14% in the diet of fingerlings sea bass seemed economic than the rest of experimental groups. The reduction of feed cost was easily observed for the feed cost per Kg weight gain which decreased with increasing lipid level till 14% and increased at lipid level 16%. These results support the growth performance parameters of fingerlings sea bass fed diet containing 14% lipid (Table 3). This is very important for sailing fingerlings sea bass.

     

Table 6 Feed cost (L.E) for producing one Kg weight gain by Seabass fingerlings fed on the experimental diets

Experimental diets

Cost

(L.E)

Relative to 10% lipid level

FCR

Feed cost (LE/kg) weight gain

Relative to 10% lipid level

10% lipid

4.24

100

2.40

10.17

100

12% lipid

4.38

103

2.13

9.22

90

14% lipid

4.46

105

1.80

8.28

78

16% lipid

4.55

107

2.00

9.10

89

 

 

Conclusion

 

It could be concluded from the present investigation that Sea bass fingerlings require 14% dietary lipid for best growth performance.

 

REFERENCES

 

AOAC, 1995. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official methods of analysis. 16th edition, AOAC, Arlington, VA. 1832pp.

Ai, Q., Mai, K., Li, H., Zhang, Ch., Zhang, L., Duan, Q., Tan, B., Xu, W., Ma, H., Zhang, W. and  Liufu, Z., 2004. Effect of dietary protein to energy ratio on growth of juvenile Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicaus. Aquaculture, 230: 507-516.

Boujard, T., Gelineau, A., Coves, D., Corraze, G., Dutto, G., Gasset, E. and Kaushike, S., 2004. Regulation of feed intake, growth, nutrient and energy utilization in European Seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax fed high fat diets. Aquaculture, 231: 529-545.

Cho. C. Y. and Bureeau, D.P., 2001. A review of diet formulation strategies and feeding systems to reduce excretory and feed wastes in aquaculture. Aquaculture. Res .32 (Suppl.1), 349-360.

Drawbridge, M.A. and Kent, D.B., 2001. Culture of marine fish, California's Living Resources: A Status Report. California Department of Fish and Game. December 2001, pp.510_512. 

Du, Z. Y., Liu, Y. J., Tian, L. X., Wang, J. T., Wang, Y. and Liang, G. Y., 2005. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth, feed utilization and body composition by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idelle). Aquaculture Nutr. 11, 139-146.

Duncan, N. B. 1955. Multiple ranges and multiple F-test. Biometrics, 11: 1-24.

Hamre, K., Christiansen, R., Waagbo, R., Maage, A., Torstensen,B.E., Lygren, B., Lie,O., Wathne, E. and Albrektsen, S., 2004. Antioxidant vitamins, minerals and lipid levels in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): effects on growth performance and fillet quality. Aquaculture Nutr. 10: 113-123.

Hung, L.T., Suhenda, N., Slembrouck, J., Lazard, J. and Moreau, Y., 2004. Comparison of dietary protein and energy utilization in three Asian catfishes (pangasius bocourti, P. hypophthalmus and P. djambal) Aquaculture Nutr. 10: 317-326.

Kent,D.B., Ford, R.F. and Drawbridage, M.A., 2001. Experimental culture and evaluation of enhancing marine fishes in Southren California. Annual Progress Reported prepared for the California Department of fish and Game and the Ocean Resources Enhancement and Hatchery Program Advisory Panel. Hubbs_Sea World Research Institute/ San Diego State University. San Diego, CA, 66 pp.

Kim, L.O. and Lee, S,-M., 2005. Effects of dietary protein levels on growth and body composition of bagrid catfish Pseudobagrus fulvidraco. Aquaculture,243: 323-329.

Kyoung-Duck Kim and Sang-Min Lee (2004). Requirement of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids for juvenile flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), Aquaculture, 229: 315-323

Lie, Ø., Lied, E., Lambertsen, G., 1988. Feed optimization in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): fat versus protein content in the feed. Aquaculture, 69: 333-341.

Lopez, L.M., Ana L,T., Eduardo, D., Mark,D and Dominique,P.B., 2006. Effect of lipid on growth and feed utilization of white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) fingerlings. Aquaculture, 253: 557-563.

Luo,Z., Liu, Y., Mai, K., Tian, L., Liu, D., Tan, X. and Lin, H., 2005. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of grouper Epinephelus coioides juveniles fed isonitrogenous diets in floting netcages. Aquaculture Int. 13, 257-269.

Nanton, D.A., Lall, S. P. and McNiven, M.A., 2001. Effects of dietary lipid level on liver and muscle lipid deposition in juvenile haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.Aquacult. Res 32, 225-234.

NRC, (1993): Nutrient requirement of fish. National Academy Press, Washington DC

Olive- Teles, A., 2000. Recent advances in European sea bass and gilthead Sea bream Nutrition.    

           Aquaculture: Int. 8, 477-492.

Olive- Teles-A and Gancolves. P. 2001. Partial replacement of fishmeal by brewers east (S.cerevisae) in diets for Seabass (D. labrax) Juveniles Aquaculture, 202: (3-4) 269-78.

Pei, Z., Xie, S., Lei, W., Zhu, X. and Yang, Y., 2004. Comparative study on the effect of dietary lipids level on growth  and feed utilization for gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassius longirostris Gunther). Aquaculture Nutrition. 10:209-216.

Peres, H. and Oliva- Teles, A., 1999. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth performance and feed utilization by Eruopean sea bass juveniles Dicentrarchus labrax.  Aquaculture,179: 325-334.

Peres, H. and Oliva- Teles, A., 2001. Effect of dietary protein and lipid level on metabolic utilization of diets by European sea bass juveniles Dicentrarchus labrax. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 25: 269-275.

Qinghui Ai, Kangsen Mai*, Huitao Li, Chunxiao Zhang, Lu Zhang, Qingyuan Duan, Beiping Tan, Wei Xu, Hongming Ma, Wenbing Zhang, and Zhigou Liufu (2004). Effects of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus. Aquaculture, 230 :507-516.

Sargent, J. R., Tocher, D.R. and Bell, J.G., 2002 The lipids. In: Halver, J.E., Hardy, R.W. (Eds.), fish Nutrition. Academic Press, London, pp. 182-257.

Sakaras, W., Boonyyaratpalin, M. and Unprasert, N. 1989. Optimum Dietary Protein Energy Ratio in Sea bass feed II. Technical paper No.8 Rayong Brackish water Fisheries Station, Thailand, 22 pp.

Torrecillas, S., Makol,A., Jcaballero,M., Montero, D., Robaina,L., Real,F., Sweetman, J., Tort, L and Izquierdo, M. S. 2007. Immune stimulation and improved infection resistance in  Eruopean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides. Fish and shellfish immunology. Article in press. 28-3-2007. 

Tibbetts, S.M., Lall, S.P. and Milley, J.E., 2005. Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels and (DP DE) ratio on growth, feed utilization and hepatosomatic index of juvenile haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus L. Aquaculture Nutr. 11, 67-75.

Williams, K.C., Barlow, C.G., Rodgers, L., Hockings, I., Agcopra, C. and  Ruscoe, I., 2003.

          Asian seabass Lates calcarifer well when fed pelleted diets high in protein and lipid.

          Aquaculture 225: 191-206.

 
Author/s
 
remove_red_eye 1297 forum 0 bar_chart Statistics share print
Share :
close
See all comments
 
   | 
Copyright © 1999-2021 Engormix - All Rights Reserved