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Symposium on Gut Health in Production of Food Animals 2021
Symposium on Gut Health in Production of Food Animals 2021

Symposium on Gut Health in Production of Food Animals 2021

October 31, 2021 to November 3, 2021
St. Louis - Missouri - United States
Lectures
07:00hs
11/2/2021
Breakfast - Archview Ballroom
07:00hs
11/2/2021
08:00hs
11/2/2021
Intestinal microbiomes as complex ecosystems - Implications for intervention strategies

Chairperson: Mike Kogut / Speaker: Mick Bailey, University of Bristol

There are clear associations between colonization with intestinal microbiomes and the development of the mucosal immune system and of metabolic function. In laboratory rodents, single microbial species can expand whole sections of the immune system and colonization of gnotobiotic pigs with an oligobiota has similar effects. However, in the field, young animals rapidly become colonized with complex microbiomes acquired from their mothers and from the environment. These are a complex set of spatially-linked microbiomes in which oral, gastric, duodenal, jejunal, ileal, cecal and colonic compartments are sequential ecosystems: each compartment acquires microorganisms from the previous compartment and then contributes microorganisms to the next. Once intestinal microbiomes are considered as a set of sequentially-dependent, complex ecosystems, it is apparent that the strategies we use to manipulate them may need to be similarly complex to provide robust, predictable results over multiple units and management systems. Many trials document the administration of single organisms to weaning or growing pigs resulting in measurable change in some parameters and these effects are interpreted as direct effects of the administered organisms (“probiotics”) on host physiology. However, while this interpretation might be acceptable in a gnotobiotic system, it is less so where the probiotic competes with existing, complex ecosystems. In addition, the documented effects frequently vary between trials or disappear once applied in real-world husbandry systems. We propose that most administered ‘probiotics’ and prebiotics, and of many nutritional interventions act indirectly, by modifying the existing, complex spectrum of sequentially[1]dependent microbiomes. As a corollary, we propose that their effectiveness is dependent on the composition of the existing, complex set of microbiomes. Characterization and manipulation of the current, baseline microbiomes in a specific unit may be necessary before administration of nutritional interventions. In addition, microbial consortia may be more effective in modifying these microbiomes than single organisms.

Key Words: microbiome, ecosystem, probiotic, immunology.

 

Authors: M. Bailey* and C. R. Stokes, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

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Speaker:
Mick Bailey
United Kingdom
08:00hs
11/2/2021
09:00hs
11/2/2021
Incorporating feed additives with coccidiosis control programs

Shelby Ramirez, BIOMIN America Inc.

Coccidiosis continues to be a major challenge in poultry production, especially in systems no longer using antibiotics. Many producers implement coccidiosis control programs utilizing combinations of coccidiosis vaccines, coccidiostats, and feed additives. Depending on the modes of action of the feed additive, combining or replacing different strategies may be advantageous. Two feed additives were evaluated: (1) a phytogenic (PHYT) as a replacement of a chemical coccidiostat, and (2) a synbiotic (SYN) as an enhancement of a coccidiosis vaccine. Both studies utilized 800 day-old Cobb 500 chicks randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups (8 replicate pens per treatment with 25 birds per pen). The first study consisted of a non-challenged control (NCC), a challenged control (CC), CC supplemented with zoalene (ZOA; 125 ppm), or CC supplemented with a PHYT (PHYT; 125 g/MT). The second study consisted of NCC, CC, CC administered a coccidiosis vaccine at placement (VAC), or VAC supplemented with SYN (SYN; 500 g/MT). In each study, birds were raised on used litter and on d 19, 20, and 21, 1 × 108 cfu/bird of Clostridium perfringens was administered via the feed. Data from each study were analyzed independently using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with significance reported at P < 0.05. The CC resulted in a 9-point (P < 0.05) and 6-point (P < 0.05) increase in FCR compared with the NCC for study 1 and study 2, respectively. In study 1, final body weight and FCR were significantly improved (P < 0.05) in the ZOA- and PHYT[1]supplemented groups compared with the CC, but were similar to each other as well as the NCC. In study 2, supplementation with SYN was able to improve FCR by 7 points compared with VAC group (P < 0.05) and was similar to the NCC. Body weight was numerically (P > 0.05) improved in SYN birds compared with VAC birds. Additionally, oocyst shedding was increased (P < 0.05) in VAC and SYN on d 14 and d 21, suggesting normal cycling of the vaccine oocysts had occurred. Incorporating either of these feed additives was advantageous in the context of each coccidiosis control program.

 

Key Words: coccidiosis, feed additive, broiler.

Authors: S. M. Ramirez *1 , G. R. Murugesan 1, C. M. Pender 1, and B. Lumpkins 2 / 1 BIOMIN America Inc., Overland Park, KS, USA, 2 Southern Poultry Feed and Research Inc., Athens, GA, USA.

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Speaker:
Shelby Ramirez
United States
Global Poultry Manager de dsm-firmenich
09:00hs
11/2/2021
09:30hs
11/2/2021
Saponins-based solution as efficient as coccidiostats to manage coccidiosis and gut health in broiler chicken?

Mohammed el Amine Benarbia, NOR FEED

Health in general—gut health in particular—is an important pillar of animal welfare. Gut health can be affected negatively in broiler chickens by coccidiosis. To limit the effect of this disease, coccidiostats have been used with success for decades. However, their intensive use in broiler chicken flocks has led to resistance. Moreover, societal demand for an antibiotic-free animal product is increasing. Thus, there is a need to develop natural and efficient tools to support modern poultry producers to fulfil the productivity needs along with market demand. Saponin[1]rich plants like Yucca schidigera and Trigonella foenum-graecum are promising tools. The objective of this presentation is to share the different evaluation methods applied to assess the efficacy of the saponin-rich plant-based solution Norponin XO 2 (NPXO2) and draw a clear picture of the available alternatives for gut health managers. From 2016 to 2021, 2 types of experimental design were applied. The first one consisted of experimental infestations within research facilities. In this experimental design, 4 groups of birds were used: infested-untreated control (IUC), untreated[1]uninfested control (UUC), infested-ionophore treated (positive control group), and infested-NPXO2 treated (NPXO2). The second experimental design was used in commercial farms with 2 groups, one with “conventional” coccidiosis management tools and one supplemented with NPXO2. In both designs, production performance parameters were monitored and gut health was assess using the Johnson and Reid methodology to score intestinal lesion score (ILS) related to coccidiosis infestation. Results from the first experiment showed that both ionophore and NPXO2 supplementation were able to reduce Eimeria spp. infestation-related ILS and maintain zootechnical performance. In the second experiment, in addition to the fact that NPXO2 supplementation was as efficient as conventional tools, NPXO2 birds displayed a higher livability. These results suggest that NPXO2 supplementation is a reliable tool to be included in gut health management in broiler chicken flocks.

 

Key Words: gut, Eimeria, chicken.

Authors: M. el Amine Benarbia*, P. Engler, L.-S. Druhet, and P. Chicoteau / Nor Feed, Beaucouzé, France.

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Speaker:
09:30hs
11/2/2021
10:00hs
11/2/2021
Coffee Break - Grand Foyer
10:00hs
11/2/2021
10:30hs
11/2/2021
Evaluation of a novel plant-based technology aiding the control of coccidiosis in modern poultry production

Don Ritter, Innovad USA

Coccidiosis in modern production has been linked with compromised intestinal health, chronic inflammation, reduction in antibiotic usage and economic losses. Even subclinical disease can lead to significant production losses. The use of anticoccidials; for example, ionophores and synthetics, has been associated with resistance, whereas vaccines have had various degrees of efficacy. Here we evaluated a novel phytogenic technology (Aflocox, Innovad) with or without an intestinal health enhancer technology (Lumance) (1) under a severe mixed coccidiosis infection in a battery cage setup, and (2) in a dietary-induced mild coccidiosis within a real production system. In experiment 1, a mixed Eimeria infection (E. acervulina ~130,000, E. maxima ~39,000, E. tenella ~32,000 and E. mitis ~11,000 oocysts/mL) at d 13 resulted in 25% mortality between d 19 and 21, which was reduced to 0% by Aflocox (200g/ton from d 13 onward) in combination with Lumance (d 1-d 12: 250 g/T; d 13 onwards: 1 kg/ton) (P < 0.05, n = 4 cages/treatment, n = 5 birds/treatment). In experiment 2, under farming conditions, a high non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) diet (60% wheat + 5% rye without NSPases) increased total Eimeria lesion scores at d 21 (P = 0.09) and significantly worsened macroscopic dysbacteriosis both at d 21 and d 28 over a standard diet (50% corn + 30% soy) (P < 0.005; 1 bird per pen scored, n = 8 pens/group; n = 30 birds/pen), evaluated according to Teirlynck et al. (2011). Both Aflocox and Aflocox in combination with Lumance (a) ameliorated dysbacteriosis over the NSP-challenged group and showed no difference over the standard diet at d 21 and d 28 (P < 0.005), and (b) reduced numerically total Eimeria lesion scores (1 bird per pen scored, n = 8 pens/group; n = 30 birds/pen) and OPGs, to the same level as the standard diet at d 21 and d 28. Importantly, Aflocox (200 g/ton) with or without Lumance (1 kg/ton) at the end of the life cycle (d 35) significantly increased the BW over the high-NSP and reduced the FCR (P < 0.05; n = 8 pens/group; n = 30 birds/pen). Thus, we have evaluated a novel phytogenic technology (Aflocox) against 2 setups of coccidiosis with great promise.

Key Words: coccidiosis, gut health, phytogenic, real farming conditions.

Authors: A. Khadem 1,2, D. Ritter *3, and C. Gougoulias1 / 1 Innovad NV/SA, Essen, Belgium, 2 Lab of Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium, 3 Innovad USA, Salisbury, MD, USA.

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10:30hs
11/2/2021
11:00hs
11/2/2021
Identification of intestinal microbiota and mycobiota signatures associated with the severity of necrotic enteritis

Glenn Zhang, Oklahoma State University

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is known to induce intestinal dysbiosis. However, the intestinal microbes that are associated with NE severity are yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the link between the ileal microbiota/mycobiota and disease severity in a chicken model of clinical NE using 16S rRNA gene and ITS2 sequencing. Our results indicated that, while the total bacterial population in the ileum was increased by 2- to 3-fold in NE chickens, the total fungal population progressively declined in exacerbated NE, with the most severely infected chickens showing a nearly 50-fold reduction relative to mock-infected controls. The C. perfringens population was increased from 0.02% in healthy chickens to 58 to 70% in chickens with severe infection, with most the ileal microbes being markedly diminished. Compositionally, a large group of ileal microbes showed a significant positive or negative correlation with NE severity. Firmicutes, such as group A and B Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Subdoligranulum variabile, Mediterraneibacter, and Staphylococcus as well as 2 genera of Actinobacteria (Corynebacterium and Kocuria) and 2 closely related Cyanobacteria were progressively declined as NE was aggravated. Other Firmicutes, such as Weissella, Romboutsia, Kurthia, Cuneatibacter, Blautia, and Aerococcus, appeared much more sensitive and were rapidly abolished in chickens even with mild NE. On the other hand, Enterococcus cecorum and 2 Escherichia/Shigella species were only enriched in the ileal microbiota of chickens with extremely severe NE. Multiple fungi such as members of the Wallemia and Aspergillus species were obviously diminished in response to NE. Functionally, secondary bile acid biosynthesis was predicted to be suppressed by NE, while biosynthesis of aromatic and branched-amino acids and metabolism of most amino acids were enhanced. These intestinal microbes showing a strong correlation with NE severity may provide important leads for the development of novel diagnostic or therapeutic approaches to NE and possibly other enteric diseases.

 

Key Words: necrotic enteritis, microbiome, mycobiome, dysbiosis, Clostridium perfringens.

Authors: Q. Yang and G. Zhang*, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

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Speaker:
Glenn Zhang
United States
Agricultural Engineer
11:00hs
11/2/2021
11:30hs
11/2/2021
Effects of an all-natural feed additive on the intestinal integrity, mucosal immunity, and gut microbiome composition of Eimeria-infected broilers

Hongyu Xue, Amlan International

M52 is a natural anticoccidial feed additive that has been shown to help prevent coccidiosis, maintain bird productivity, and has potential as an alternative to ionophores and chemical coccidiostats. This study further evaluated the effects of the product on host anti-Eimeria immunity, gut microbiome composition and intestinal integrity of broilers challenged with experimental coccidiosis. In this 28-d study, day-old Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) unchallenged control; (2) Eimeria-infected control; and (3) Eimeria-infected + M52 (70 g/MT feed). On d 14. chickens from treatments 2 and 3 were challenged with 100X Bio-Coccivet R Vaccine, a live polyvalent vaccine consisting of sporulated oocysts of 7 Eimeria spp. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell phenotype, ceca-cecal tonsil cytokine mRNA expression, duodenal/jejunum histopathology and gut microbiome of cecal content were examined. Eimeria challenge induced moderate to severe parasitic enteritis manifested with prominent villous hyperplasia, heterophil mucosal infiltration, and hemorrhagic or necrotic foci on d 19. The product markedly reduced these histopathological changes. On d 28, M52 significantly increased the abundance of CD4−TCRVβ1+, CD8−CD28+ and CD4−TCRVβ1+ subsets, which help uphold mucosal immune homeostasis and develop competent mucosal and systemic adaptive immunity when faced with pathogen insults. On d 19, M52 dampened Eimeria challenge-associated upregulation of cecal IL-10, whose immunosuppressive properties can also be exploited by pathogens to facilitate their own survival. Before Eimeria challenge, M52 enhanced the relative abundance of Blautia and L-Ruminococcus genera, 2 short-chain fatty acid producers, and further dampened the impairment on microbiota diversity associated with the subsequent Eimeria challenge. Collectively, M52 treatment promoted a well-balanced immune homeostasis, dampened intestinal damage, and preserved the microbiota diversity, which all contribute to an enhanced resilience to Eimeria spp. challenge.

 

Key Words: coccidiosis, anti-Eimeria immunity, IL-10, micro[1]biome, intestinal integrity.

Authors: H. Xue *1, F. Rigo 2, B. Beirão 2, C. Fávaro 2, and M. Ingberman 2 / 1 Amlan International, Chicago, IL, USA, 2 Imunova Análises Biológicas, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

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Speaker:
Hongyu Xue
United States
11:30hs
11/2/2021
12:00hs
11/2/2021
Lunch - Archview Ballroom
12:00hs
11/2/2021
13:30hs
11/2/2021
The culture of yak rumen anaerobic fungi Orpinomyces sp. YF3 promotes the degradation of stalks by microorganisms in the rumen of dairy goats
Chairperson: Glenn Zhang / Speaker: Yangchun Cao, Northwest A&F University
 

We studied the effects of yak rumen anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. YF3 on the fermentation of stalks in 2 experiments. The first experiment investigated whether Orpinomyces sp. YF3 (0, 5, 10, 15%) could promote the in vitro fermentation of wheat straw. We found that 15% addition of Orpinomyces sp. YF3 increased the activity of xylanase and acetylesterase and reduced the NH3 -N concentration with 3-d fermentation. In addition, the 15% addition improved the percentage of acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate (A:P) and decreased the percentage of butyrate with 5-d fermentation. The second experiment explored the effects of repelling rumen fungi and 15% addition Orpinomyces sp. YF3 on fermentation profile and microbial diversity. Four treatments were set up: control (C), antibiotic (CA, d 0 treated with 0.25 mg/mL cycloheximide), yak fungi (CF, d 4 to 8 replaced saliva with 15% Orpinomyces sp. YF3 culture), and antibiotic + yak fungi (CAF + Orpinomyces sp. YF3) groups. CF improved the activity of carboxymethyl cellulase and avicelase, the concentration of NH3 -N, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) and acetate, and A:P, but reduced propionate concentration. Additionally, CF increased the relative abundance of fiber[1]degrading-related bacteria (Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, Ruminococcus, Pyramidobacter, etc.) and acetogenic-related bacteria (Anaerovorax), but decreased that of starch-degrading bacteria (Prevotella), propionate-producing-related bacteria (Fibrobacter), and 4 yeasts (Vishniacozyma, etc.). Similarly, CAF improved the activity of avicelase, increased acetate percentage, and reduced propionate percentage and total VFA concentration. CAF showed similar effects on microbial diversity, with increased relative abundance of fiber-degrading-related bacteria (Christensenellaceae_R-7_group) and acetogenic-related bacteria (Anaerovorax), and decreased relative abundance of starch-degrading bacteria (Streptococcus). In conclusion, treating forage with Orpinomyces sp. YF3 is probably a practical strategy to promote roughage degradation in ruminants.

Key Words: yak, rumen anaerobic fungi, stalk degradation, microorganism.

Authors: Z. Liu 1, Y. Li 1, C. Zhao 1, L. Wang 1,2, J. Yao 1, and Y. Cao *1,2 / 1 Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China, 2 Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

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Speaker:
13:30hs
11/2/2021
14:00hs
11/2/2021
Development of a model to examine developmental changes in intestinal crypt cell proliferation and macrophage densities of neonatal piglets

A. J. Calderon, Auburn University

Young piglets are more susceptible to severe immune challenges because their immune system is not fully developed at birth. A randomized complete block design experiment utilizing a 4 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary protein source on intestinal crypt cell proliferation and local macrophage populations of neonatal piglets. Male and female piglets (n = 123) from 5 farrowing groups were fed 1 of 3 liquid diets: (1) Whey (MLK) only, (2) MLK + spray-dried plasma (SDP), or (3) MLK + soy protein concentrate (SPC). After receiving sow colostrum, piglets were reared in Rescue Decks® until tissue collection. A fourth group was left in the farrowing crate and nursed the sow until sampling (SOW). Duodenal (DUO), jejunal (JEJ), and ileal (ILE) tissue was collected at 6, 14, 19, and 25 d of age. One hour before euthanasia, pigs were injected with 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label proliferating (BrdU+) cells. Proportion of proliferating (BrdU+), crypt epithelial cells (PCEC) and CD172a (total) and CD80+ (pro-inflammatory) macrophage populations was assessed after cryohistology and immunofluorescence staining. At 6 d old, male piglets fed SDP had greater JEJ PCEC compared with SOW males (P = 0.0081). At d 14, male piglets fed SPC had higher DUO PCEC than those fed SDP (P = 0.0074). Females fed SPC tended to have greater JEJ (P = 0.0894) and ILE (P = 0.0793) PCEC than SPC-fed males. At d 6, male SOW-fed piglets had the largest populations of both DUO pro-inflammatory (CD80+; P= 0.0478) and proliferating, pro-inflammatory (BrdU+:CD80+; P = 0.0040) macrophages. In the DUO, at d 19, SDP-fed and male SPC-fed piglets exhibited the highest total macrophage density (P = 0.0025). In the ILE, on d 19, SDP-fed females had the highest pro-inflammatory macrophage density compared with all other groups (P = 0.0465). These data establish a model to evaluate developmental intestinal innate immunity and indicate that dietary protein source can impact PCEC, which may benefit renewal of the intestinal epithelial barrier.

 

Key Words: immune system, small intestine, intestinal macro[1]phages, spray-dried plasma.

Authors: A. J. Calderon*, J. L. Sandoval, J. D. Starkey, and C. W. Starkey, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.

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14:00hs
11/2/2021
14:30hs
11/2/2021
Protected biofactors and antioxidants reduce the negative consequences of virus and cold challenge while enhancing performance by modulating immunometabolism through cytoskeletal and immune signaling

Famata Perry, University of Delaware

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanism of action of 2 feed additives in reducing the impacts of physiological stressors. We compared the effects of protected biofactors and antioxidants [P(BF+AOx)], and protected biofactors and antioxidants with protected organic acids and essential oils [P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO)] on the immune and metabolic health of Ross 308 chickens. These biofactors and antioxidants were derived from vitamins, and Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, and Bacillus subtilis fermentation extracts. All Ross 308 chickens were exposed to a double dose of live bronchitis vaccine at d 0 and environmentally challenged by reducing the temperature from 30–32°C to 20–23°C at d 3 for 48 h. Control birds were fed without feed additives in the diet. Performance data, jejunum and liver samples were collected to evaluate the effects of these treatments on growth, cytokine expression and kinome peptide array. Analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis of the performance and gene expression data (P = 0.05), and PIIKA2 was used for statistical evaluation and comparison of the kinome peptide array data. The P(BF+AOx) and P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) treatments significantly increased bird weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The kinome peptide array data showed increased activity of cytoskeletal, cell growth and proliferation proteins, and metabolic signaling in the jejunum of P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) treated chickens. There was also increased phosphorylation and activity of proinflammatory and immune proteins in the liver compared with the jejunum. There was a significant decrease in IL-6 gene expression in the jejunum of P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) samples compared with control at d 15, and a decreased expression of the anti-inflammatory marker IL-10 for P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) and P(BF+AOx) liver groups when compared with control at d 7. P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) improves gut health via growth and metabolic signaling in the jejunum while both treatments induce immunomodulation.

 

Key Words: biofactor, antioxidant, immunometabolism, kinome peptide array, gut health.

Authors:  F. Perry *1, L. Lahaye 2, E. Santin 2, C. Johnson 1, D. Korver 3, M. Kogut 4, and R. Arsenault 1 / 1 University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA, 2 Jefo Nutrition Inc., Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada, 3 University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, 4 USDA-ARS, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, College Station, TX, USA.

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14:30hs
11/2/2021
15:00hs
11/2/2021
Microbiome metabolic modulation by a novel precision glycan for poultry

Cristiano Bortoluzzi, DSM Nutritional Products AG

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the complete metagenomics and metabolomics of the cecal microbiome as well as the intestinal transcriptomics of broiler chickens supplemented with a novel precision glycan Microbiome Metabolic Modulator (MMM). Day-old chicks were placed on a completely randomized block design with 2 treatments, 21 replicates, and 40 birds/replicate. The treatments consisted of a non-supplemented control or feed supplemented with 500 ppm of MMM2 precision glycan (Glycan M2–1, Midori USA, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA; commercially available as Symphiome Poultry; DSM Nutritional Products). Cecal content samples were collected at 24 and 42 d of age from 1 bird/pen, and frozen at −80°C for further analyses. Ileal tissue samples were collected at 42 d of age into RNAlater solution and frozen at −20°C until RNA extraction. Metagenomic DNA from the cecal content was isolated and sequenced by an Illumina HiSeq 3000 platform, and the entire metabolomics analysis was performed. Ileal mRNA was isolated, and the gene expression analysis was performed by a chicken Gene expression Microarray, 4x44K (Agilent). Related to the microbiome analysis, increased energy production around the TCA cycle associated with a concomitant increase of acetyl[1]CoA, justified mainly by a significant acetylation of multiple amino acids and increased lipid biosynthesis was observed. The increased carbon flow was also directed to the production of short chain fatty acids, mainly propionate by the acrylate pathway. About the nitrogen metabolism, ammonia was found to be largely detoxified through pathways to polyamines, out of the uric acid cycle at d 24, and through the asparagine outlet at 42 d. Interestingly, host glutamine synthetase was significantly decreased suggesting decreased ammonia toxicity. Regarding the host meta-transcriptomics, it was shown that IL-4 and IL-4-like, as well as IL-10 family were positively associated with MMM2 supplementation, indicating a possible anti-inflammatory and/or regulatory role of MMM2, most likely as a secondary outcome from the metabolic modulation of the microbiome.

 

Key Words: broiler, microbiome metabolic modulator, nitrogen metabolism.

Authors:  J. Claypool 1, K. Freeman 1, B. Blokker 2, M. C. Walsh 3, C. Bortoluzzi *3, and G. Schyns 1,3 / 1 DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Lexington, MA, USA, 2 CRNA, DSM Nutritional Products SA, Village-Neuf, France, 3 DSM Nutritional Products AG, Kaiseraugst, Swittzerland.

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Speaker:
Cristiano Bortoluzzi
Brasil
Senior Poultry Scientist - Global Innovation Team · DSM
15:00hs
11/2/2021
15:30hs
11/2/2021
Coffee Break - Grand Foyer
15:30hs
11/2/2021
16:00hs
11/2/2021
Effects of a saponin and oregano blend on performance and oocyst shedding in turkey poults during a coccidiosis challenge

Stephanie Hutsko, Provimi

Coccidiosis in turkeys leads to decreased ADG, increased FCR, damaged intestinal integrity and, in clinical cases, increased mortality. Over the past decades of chemical and medication usage, Eimeria species have developed resistance to anticoccidial drugs limiting their effectiveness. So, this creates an urgent need to develop effective prevention and control strategies. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the potential of a proprietary saponin/ oregano blend to maintain performance and reduce oocyst shedding in turkey poults during a coccidiosis challenge. In study 1, poults were raised in battery cages d 0- 14 and then were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: Control (C; non-medicated, non-infected), Negative Control (NC; non-medicated, infected), Zoalene (ZO; 125 ppm Zoalene, infected) and Experimental (E; saponin/oregano blend; 2 lb/t, infected), each with 7 replicates of 8 poults/replicate. On d 16 poults were gavaged with 1 mL of coccidia inoculum (100,000 oocysts/mL) and on d 25 birds were weighed and excreta collected for oocyst counts. The E birds had higher ADG compared with the NC and ZO birds and a lower FCR compared with NC (P < 0.05). Shedding of E. adenoids was decreased in the E group compared with NC, and shedding of E. meleagrimitis and E. gallopavonis was intermediate between the NC and ZO groups. In study 2, poults were again raised in battery cages d 0–14 and then were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: Control (C; non-medicated, non-infected), Negative Control (NC; non-medicated, infected), Zoalene (ZO; 125 ppm, infected), Natustat (NS; 4lb/t, infected), Experimental (E; saponin/oregano blend; 2 lb/t, infected), each with 7 replicates of 8 poults/replicate. On d 16 poults were gavaged with 1 mL of coccidia inoculum (100,000 oocysts/mL). On d 21, birds were weighed and excreta collected for oocyst counts. Birds in the E group showed improved ADG and FCR compared with the NC and NS groups (P < 0.05). Oocyst shedding in the E group was intermediate between the NC and ZO groups. Overall, this saponin and oregano blend was effective at improving performance and reducing oocyst shedding in poults during a coccidiosis challenge.

Key Words: cocci, prevention, turkey, oocyst, saponin.

Authors: S. Hutsko*, A. Garcia, E. Guaiume, D. Giesting, and R. Payne / Cargill Animal Nutrition, Rice Lake, WI, USA.

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Speaker:
Stephanie Hutsko
United States
16:00hs
11/2/2021
16:30hs
11/2/2021
Effects of lipid-based natural R2 products on performance and microbiome of broilers in comparison with common feed antimicrobial measures

Abdullah Mahfuz, Feed Energy Company

Due to the recent restrictions of antibiotic, antibiotic as growth promoter (AGP) usage in animals and the negative effects of formaldehyde on animal performance, the animal feed industry has started to evaluate alternatives to AGP and formaldehyde for flock health and performance. R2 is Feed Energy’s patent pending low pKa, lipid-based line of products that provides nutrient-dense source of essential fatty acids along with feed biosecurity benefits. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of R2 product OptimizR2 on broiler health and performance in comparison with commonly used antimicrobial measures. One-day-old male Ross 308 chicks (n = 320) were placed in 40 cages of 8 birds/cage. The treatments consisted of feeds formulated to meet NRC with 4% added lipids to produce 4 dietary treatments (SBO: Basal Diet+Refined SoyOil, SBO-B: SBO+Bacillus product, SBO-F: SBO+Formaldehyde product, Basal Diet+OptimizR2). Treatments were randomly assigned to provide 10 replications/treatment. The birds were fed a starter and grower feeds from d 1 to d 21 and d 22 to d 35, respectively. Microbial phylogenetic diversity analysis of d-35 cecal samples of birds were conducted using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Performance parameters measured were body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion (FC), and mortality. Differences in performance between groups were analyzed for significance (P < 0.05) using ANOVA. The numerical differences in BW (SBO = 4.30 lb, OptimizR2 = 4.50 lb, SBO-B = 4.33 lb, SBO-F = 4.19 lb) and ADG (SBO = 0.12, OptimizR2 = 0.13, SBO-B = 0.12, SBO-F = 0.12) at the end of the trial were different (P < 0.05). The dietary addition of R2 to the broiler diets also improved FC (P < 0.05). Cecal microbiota showed much higher diversity with beneficial bacteria in R2 group. R2 preserve higher population of lactobacillus and eliminate harmful gram-negative bacteria compare with bacillus group. Gut beneficial lactobacillus level was low in formaldehyde group. The addition of R2 to feeds improves performance and offers benefits to the microbiome in broilers.

 

Key Words: broiler, microbiome, nutrition.

Authors: A. Mahfuz *1, C. Jaeger 1, E. Weaver 2, and M. Dasari 1 / 1 Feed Energy Company, Pleasant Hill, IA, USA, 2 South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA.

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16:30hs
11/2/2021
17:00hs
11/2/2021
Efficacy of mycotoxin deactivator on health and growth of broiler chickens under chronic dietary challenge of aflatoxins

Haitham Yakout, Adisseo

Aflatoxins are hepatotoxic and carcinogenic, and display immunosuppression properties for both humans and animals. This is also why they are the most widely studied and regulated mycotoxins. Strategies to mitigate aflatoxins prevalence includes the use of clays in animal feed as sequestering agents. Innovative approach consists in providing ingredients controlling inflammation and promoting immune. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of naturally contaminated diet with aflatoxins (AFB1) on health and performance of commercial broilers, and the efficacy of a mycotoxin deactivator based on clays, inactivated yeast and fermentation extracts. A total of 7200 straight run Vencobb 430 chicks were assigned for 42 d to 1 of 3 treatments in a randomized block design (8 pens per treatment): (1) BD: basal diet with residual mycotoxins; (2) MT: diet with 56 ppb AFB1; and (3) TN: MT + mycotoxin deactivator at 2 kg/t. Performance parameters were recorded on weekly basis, and blood was collected at d21 and d42. MT group shows significant lower BW than BD from 14 to 42 d, resulting in a decreased FCR (+2.6% for the overall period). TN can restore the performance compared with MT (−9.7% FCR) and to BD (−7.1% FCR). AFM1 in plasma, as a biomarker of chronic exposure, showed reduction of AFB1 assimilation (from −42% to −75%, P < 0.01) in the TN treated birds. AFB1 induces inflammation as shown by the increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL1b, IL6, IL8, TNFa between BD and MT. TN treatment aimed to decrease these parameters relative to MT and to promote the production of anti-inflammatory IL10. Birds receiving TN treatment have higher antioxidant indicators such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase compared with MT and showed lower lipid peroxidation marker like malondialdehyde. This study highlights the complementary modes of action of this mycotoxin deactivator by inhibiting AFB1 in the intestine and by repairing damage caused at the gut level on inflammation, immune response and redox balance. This leads to sustained broiler resilience and performance.

 

Key Words: aflatoxin, broiler, immunity, inflammation, antioxidant.

Authors: P. S. Ingewar 1, V. Patil 2, N. Kurkure 2, G. Bromfman *3 , H. Yakout 3, J. Dvorska 4, and D. P. Preveraud 4 / 1 A2 Livestock Farms and Research, Nagpur, India, 2 Department of Pathology, Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharashtra Animal & Fishery Science University, Nagpur, India, 3 Adisseo USA Inc., Alpharetta, GA, USA, 4 Adisseo France SAS, Antony, France.

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Speaker:
Haitham Yakout
Belgium
Director of Technical Sales Support
17:00hs
11/2/2021
18:00hs
11/2/2021
Reception - Archview Ballroom
18:00hs
11/2/2021