The objective of the present study was to evaluate the complete metagenomics and metabolomics of the cecal microbiome as well as the intestinal transcriptomics of broiler chickens supplemented with a novel precision glycan Microbiome Metabolic Modulator (MMM). Day-old chicks were placed on a completely randomized block design with 2 treatments, 21 replicates, and 40 birds/replicate. The treatments consisted of a non-supplemented control or feed supplemented with 500 ppm of MMM2 precision glycan (Glycan M2–1, Midori USA, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA; commercially available as Symphiome Poultry; DSM Nutritional Products). Cecal content samples were collected at 24 and 42 d of age from 1 bird/pen, and frozen at −80°C for further analyses. Ileal tissue samples were collected at 42 d of age into RNAlater solution and frozen at −20°C until RNA extraction. Metagenomic DNA from the cecal content was isolated and sequenced by an Illumina HiSeq 3000 platform, and the entire metabolomics analysis was performed. Ileal mRNA was isolated, and the gene expression analysis was performed by a chicken Gene expression Microarray, 4x44K (Agilent). Related to the microbiome analysis, increased energy production around the TCA cycle associated with a concomitant increase of acetyl-CoA, justified mainly by a significant acetylation of multiple amino acids and increased lipid biosynthesis was observed. The increased carbon flow was also directed to the production of short chain fatty acids, mainly propionate by the acrylate pathway. About the nitrogen metabolism, ammonia was found to be largely detoxified through pathways to polyamines, out of the uric acid cycle at d 24, and through the asparagine outlet at 42 d. Interestingly, host glutamine synthetase was significantly decreased suggesting decreased ammonia toxicity. Regarding the host meta-transcriptomics, it was shown that IL-4 and IL-4-like, as well as IL-10 family were positively associated with MMM2 supplementation, indicating a possible anti-inflammatory and/or regulatory role of MMM2, most likely as a secondary outcome from the metabolic modulation of the microbiome.
Key Words: broiler, microbiome metabolic modulator, nitrogen metabolism.
Presented at the 9th Symposium on Gut Health in Production of Food Animals, St. Louis, USA, 2021. For information on the next edition, click here.