Engormix/Mycotoxins/Technical articles

Occurrence and concentration of mycotoxins in maize dried distillers’ grains produced in Brazil

Published on: 12/17/2021
Author/s : C.A. Mallmann, C. Tonial Simões, J. Kobs Vidal, C. Rosa da Silva, L.M. de Lima Schlösser, C.A. Araújo de Almeida / Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

The presence of mycotoxins in dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS), a by-product of bioethanol production from maize, has been a matter of concern due to the increasing global utilisation of this ingredient in animal feed. In this study, 186 samples of maize DDGS produced in Brazil were analysed for the presence of major mycotoxins: aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2), fumonisins (B1 and B2), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Samples were provided by the local industry between January 2017 and October 2020, and mycotoxins were quantified by LC-MS/MS. More than 98% of the analysed samples were contaminated with mycotoxins, from which 59.9% had a single mycotoxin, 29.9% two mycotoxins, and 9.1% more than two mycotoxins. The most prevalent metabolites were fumonisin B1 and B2, being detected in 98.8% (mean 3,207 μg/kg) and 97.6% (mean 1,243 μg/kg) of the samples, respectively; aflatoxin B1 had the third highest positivity, with 32.3% (mean 1.47 μg/kg), followed by ZEN, with 18.01% (mean 18.2 μg/kg), DON, with 12.9% (mean 59.6 μg/kg), and OTA was not detected. Co-occurrence of total aflatoxins (AFT = aflatoxin B1+B2+G1+G2) and total fumonisins (FBT = fumonisin B1+B2) was observed in 32.07% of the samples analysed for these mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of AFT and ZEN was found in 7.84% of the samples analysed for such mycotoxins, while FBT and DON co-occurred at 13.01%. AFT, FBT, DON and ZEN co-occurred in only one sample (0.84%). Except for FBT, a considerable number of samples presented the evaluated mycotoxins below their respective limit of quantification (LOQ) with percentages of 67.61% for AFT, 81.99% for ZEN, 87.07% for DON and 100% for OTA. Since the production of bioethanol and its by-products is growing worldwide, including in Brazil, mycotoxicological monitoring of maize DDGS is crucial to identify the effects of mycotoxins occurrence in animal feed formulated with this ingredient.

Keywords: co-occurrence, DDGS, fumonisin, maize ethanol.


Abstract published in World Mycotoxin Journal: 14 (3)- Pages: 259 - 268. https://doi.org/10.3920/WMJ2020.2669.

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