Effect of Dietary Mycodetox B2 on Production Performance, Organ Weights and Biochemical Parameters During Aflatoxicosis in Broiler Chickens

Published on: 6/1/2020
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Abstract

To evaluate the efficacy of Mycodetox B2 in ameliorating aflatoxicosis, day-old broiler chicks (n=200) were divided into 5 treatment groups (T1-control, basal diet; T2-T1+200ppb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); T3- T1+300ppb AFB1; T4-T2+Mycodetox B2; T5-T3+Mycodetox B2). Each diet was fed to 5 replicated groups of 8 birds each from 1 to 42 days of age. During overall growth period (0-6 wk), the body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) in T1 was higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3. The BWG and FI in T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3 and similar to T1. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) in T1 was lower (P<0.05) than T2 and T3. The FCR of T2 and T3 was higher (P<0.05) than T4 and T5. The FCR of T4 and T5 was similar to T1. The relative weights of liver and spleen in T1 was lower (P<0.05) than T2 and T3, and of T4 and T5 was similar to T1. The relative weights of bursa in T1 was higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3. The relative weights of bursa in T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3, and statistically similar to T1. The serum protein, cholesterol and uric acid levels of T2 and T3 were lower (P<0.05) than T1. The serum protein, cholesterol and uric acid levels of T4 and T5 were higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3, and similar to T1. The SGPT and SGOT value in T1 was lower (P<0.05) than T2 and T3. The SGPT and SGOT value of T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than T2 and T3, and similar to T1. It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of Mycodetox B2 alleviated the adverse effects of aflatoxicosis on production performance, organ weights and blood biochemicals in broiler chickens.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, Amelioration, Mycodetox B2, Organ weight, Serum biochemicals, Production performance, Broiler chicken.

1. Introduction

Mycotoxicosis i.e. the toxic effects of mycotoxins, is characterized by its nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects in animals and poultry (Patil et al., 2005, 2006, 2014, 2017a, b; Katole et al., 2013; Patial et al., 2013; Patel et al., 2015; Patil and Degloorkar, 2016a, b, 2018; Singh, 2019a-g; Singh et al., 2019a, b, c; Sharma et al., 2019c). The most widespread and most studied group of mycotoxins, aflatoxins are of great concern in warm and humid climatic conditions like India (Singh et al., 2010). Aflatoxicosis in poultry causes lowered performance in terms of reduced body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency (Singh et al., 2011; Khatke et al., 2012b; Patil et al., 2013; Silambarasan et al., 2013; Shamsudeen et al., 2013; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a, b; Sharma et al., 2014a; Sharma et al., 2015; Singh et al., 2015; Singh et al., 2016; Sharma et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a, b, e; Sharma et al., 2019c), reduced nutrient utilisation (Silambarasan et al., 2013), increased mortality (Singh et al., 2011; Khatke et al., 2012b; Shamsudeen et al., 2013; Sharma et al., 2014a; Sharma et al., 2015; Silambarasan et al., 2015; Singh, 2019c, d, f), anemia (Singh et al., 2015, 2016), hepatotoxicosis and haemorrhage (Singh et al., 2013a, b; Churchil et al., 2014; Singh et al., 2015, 2016; Pathak et al., 2017), gross lesions in organs (Singh et al., 2013a, b; Singh et al., 2015, 2016), altered relative weight of organs (Khatke et al., 2012c; Patil et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2013b; Shamsudeen et al., 2014; Sharma et al., 2015; Silambarasan et al., 2015; Singh, 2019a, b, e; Sharma et al., 2019a; Sharma et al., 2019d), altered carcass quality traits (Shamsudeen et al., 2014; Silambarasan et al., 2015; Sharma et al., 2019a; Sharma et al., 2019d), altered biochemistry (Singh et al., 2011; Khatke et al., 2012c; Patil et al., 2013; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a; Sharma et al., 2014a, b; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a, b, e; Sharma et al., 2019b) and histopathological lesions in organs (Khatke et al., 2012a; Sharma et al., 2014b; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Singh, 2019c, d, f; Sharma et al., 2019b).

It impairs humoral and cellular immune responses in poultry and increases susceptibility to environmental and infectious agents (Khatke et al., 2012a; Patil et al., 2013; Sharma et al., 2014b; Sharma et al., 2016; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Singh, 2019c, d, f; Sharma et al., 2019c) leading to severe economic losses. The concept of mycotoxin binder added to the diet is to bind mycotoxins to prevent toxicity in the gastro-intestinal tract and prevent absorption across the gut wall. Silambarasan et al. (2013) reported that diatomaceous earth, sodium bentonite and zeolite, at 0.5 or 1% level, alone or in combination, were partially efficacious in ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxin. Among these three binders tested, diatomaceous earth appeared to be the least efficacious. Singh et al. (2013b) reported that inclusion of slightly higher methionine (0.025 or 0.05%) in feed of coloured broiler chickens was beneficial to counteract the adverse effects of aflatoxin partially. Sharma et al. (2014a) reported that supplementation of 40 mg Zn/kg to the aflatoxin contaminated diet ameliorated the ill effects of aflatoxicosis on performance of the birds. Khatke et al. (2012b) reported that addition of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) @ 0.2% alone or in combination provided moderate protection against the adverse effects of 300 ppb of aflatoxin. MOS appeared to be more efficacious than SC in counteracting aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Singh and Mandal (2013) reported that butylated hydroxyanisole at 1000 and 2000 ppm levels provided partial amelioration of aflatoxicosis caused by 1 ppm total aflatoxin in broiler chickens. Based on a decade of intensive research efforts on mycotoxicosis in various avian species, Mycodetox B2 was formulated and the objective of the present investigation was to test the efficacy of this toxin binder in ameliorating aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1 Production and Analysis of Aflatoxin

Aflatoxin was produced using the fungal strain Aspergillus flavus NRRL 6513 that was obtained from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Illinois, USA. To get the fresh spores, the culture was regularly subcultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium slants and stored at 5°C. Aflatoxin B1 was produced on maizesubstrate as per the method of Singh and Shrivastav (2012). The extraction and estimation of aflatoxin B1 was done as per Pons et al. (1966). Aqueous acetone was used for extraction of the toxin. Aflatoxin contents were finally quantified using a UV spectrophotometer.

2.2 Experimental Design

Experimental design was completely randomized design. There were five dietary treatment groups (T1-control, basal diet; T2-T1+200ppb AFB1; T3- T1+300ppb AFB1; T4-T2+Mycodetox B2; T5- T3+Mycodetox B2). Each dietary treatment had 5 replicates and each replicate had 8 chicks. The experiment was conducted in broiler chickens for 6 weeks of age. The various dietary treatments were prepared by mixing mouldy maize to get the desired concentration of 200 and 300 ppb AFB1 and the Mycodetox B2 at the rate of 132g per quintal of feed. The Mycodetox B2 formulated after a decade of intensive research efforts in mycotoxicosis consisted of sodium bentonite (30.30%), zeolite (30.30%), MOS (15.15%), methionine (18.94%), butylated hydroxyanisole (3.74%) and Zinc (1.52%).

2.3 Biological Experiment, Feed Formulation and Analysis

Day-old broiler chicks (n=200) were obtained from experimental hatchery, CARI, Izatnagar. The chicks were wing banded, weighed individually and distributed randomly into five groups. All birds were reared under standard management conditions and fed with broiler starter ration from 1-21 days and broiler finisher ration from 22 to 42 days. The composition of broiler starter and finisher ration was as below: The starter diet with maize 55.5, Deoiled rice bran 1.88, soybean meal 31.0, guar corma 4, rapeseed meal 4, fish meal 4.5, limestone 0.7, dicalcium phosphate 1.6, common salt 0.2, DL-methionine 0.07, lysine 0.125, TM premix 0.11, vitamin premix 0.15, B complex 0.015, choline chloride 0.05 and coccidiostat 0.05%; and finisher diet with maize 62.42, Deoiled rice bran 2.01, soybean meal 20.5, guar corma 4, rapeseed meal 4, fish meal 4, limestone 0.5, dicalcium phosphate 1.6, common salt 0.25, DL-methionine 0.03, lysine 0.07, TM premix 0.10, vitamin premix 0.15, B complex 0.015, choline chloride 0.05 and coccidiostat 0.05% were formulated. TM premix supplied Mg, 300; Mn, 55; I, 0.4; Fe, 56; Zn, 30; Cu, 4 mg/kg diet. Vitamin premix supplied Vit A, 8250 IU; Vit. D3, 1200 IU; Vit. K, 1mg per kg diet. B complex supplied Vit. B1, 2mg; Vit. B2, 4mg; Vit. B12, 10mcg; niacin, 60mg; pantothenic acid, 10mg; choline, 500mg per kg diet. The starter diet contained 22.3% crude protein, 2,807 Kcal ME/kg, lysine 1.28%, methionine 0.51%, calcium 1.09% and available P 0.50%. The corresponding values in finisher diet were 20.06%, 2,876 Kcal/kg, 1.04%, 0.43%, 1.09% and 0.42%. The protein as per AOAC (1990) and calcium contents as per Talapatra et al. (1940) were estimated, while the concentration of lysine, methionine, available P and metabolizable energy value were calculated. Weekly individual body weight and feed consumption of each group were recorded and the FCR (feed:gain) was calculated. At the end of sixth week of experimental trial, ten birds per dietary treatment were sacrificed randomly in order to record relative (% body weight) weights of liver, heart, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. The blood samples from each treatment group were collected. The serum was separated and stored at -200C and analyzed for various biochemical parameters using commercial kit manufactured by Span Diagnostics Ltd, SACHIN, Surat.

2.4 Statistical Analysis

The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 16.0). The recorded data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance with comparison among means was made by Duncan‘s multiple range test with significance level of P<0.05.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1 Production Traits

The data pertaining to production traits viz. body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in various growth phases are presented in Table 1.

3.1.1 Body Weight Gain

During starter phase (0-3wk) of growth period, the BWG in AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) was lower (P<0.05) than that of control (T1). The BWG of groups T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3 and statistically similar to that of control. The BWG between groups T2 and T3 was statistically similar. During finisher phase (4-6 wk) of growth period, the BWG of T1 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3. The BWG of groups T2 and T3 was lower (P<0.05) than those of T4 and T5. The BWG of group T2 was higher (P<0.05) than that of T3. During overall growth period (0-6 wk), the BWG in T1 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3. The BWG in T2 and T3 was lower (P<0.05) than those of T4 and T5. The BWG of T1 was statistically similar to those of T4 and T5. The BWG of group T2 was higher (P<0.05) than that of T3. The results revealed that dietary AFB1 at 200 and 300 ppb levels resulted in significant reduction of BWG during all the three growth phases. The results further revealed that during finisher and overall growth periods, the 300 ppb AFB1 further suppressed the growth significantly as compared to 200 ppb AFB1.

This result is in agreement with those of earlier researchers (Patil et al., 2013; Sharma et al., 2014a; Silambarasan et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2015; Singh et al., 2016; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a; Singh et al., 2013b; Khatke et al., 2012b; Sharma et al., 2015; Shamsudeen et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2011; Sharma et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a; Singh, 2019b; Singh, 2019e) who also reported significant reduction in BWG of broilers due to consumption of aflatoxin contaminated feed. Several studies also reported that dietary aflatoxin at 0.5 ppm or more in commercial broiler diets adversely affected growth performance in a dose-dependent manner (Miazzo et al., 2000; Johri et al., 1988; Santurio et al., 1999; Beura et al., 1993; Verma et al., 2004; Rosa et al., 2001; Oguz and Parlat, 2004).

3.1.2 Feed Intake

During starter phase (0-3wk) of experimental trial, the FI in control group (T1) did not differ (P<0.05) from other treatment groups. The FI of group T3 was lower (P<0.05) than those of T4 and statistically similar but numerically lower than that of T5. During finisher phase (4-6 wk) of growth trial, the FI of control group (T1) was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3. The FI of groups T2 and T3 was lower (P<0.05) than those of T4 and T5. The FI of group T2 was higher (P<0.05) than that of T3. The feed intake of groups T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3, and statistically similar to that of control. During overall growth trial (0-6 wk), the FI of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) was lower (P<0.05) than that of control (T1). The FI of groups T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3.

The FI of group T2 was higher (P<0.05) than that of T3. The results revealed that dietary AFB1 at 200 and 300 ppb levels resulted in decreased (P<0.05) feed intake in broiler chickens. The results also revealed that feed consumption was further significantly (P<0.05) reduced in 300 ppb level as compared to 200 ppb AFB1. Significantly reduced feed consumption due to aflatoxicosis in birds was also reported earlier by several researchers (Patil et al., 2013; Sharma et al., 2014a; Silambarasan et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2015; Singh et al., 2016; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a; Singh et al., 2013b; Khatke et al., 2012b; Sharma et al., 2015; Shamsudeen et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2011; Sharma et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a; Singh, 2019b; Singh, 2019e).

Beura et al. (1993) also reported reduced feed consumption due to aflatoxicosis in pure bred and commercial broiler chickens caused by 300 and 800 ppb levels of dietary aflatoxin, respectively. Several earlier studies also reported that dietary aflatoxin adversely affected feed consumption in a dose – dependent manner, ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 ppm (Kubena et al., 1990; Kubena et al., 1998; Ledoux et al., 1999; Santurio et al., 1999; Verma et al., 2004).

Table 1: Effect of aflatoxin B1 and Mycodetox B2 on body weight gain, feed consumption and FCR in broiler chickens

3.1.3 Feed Conversion

Ratio During starter phase, finisher phase and overall growth phase, the FCR in control group (T1) was lower (P<0.05) than those of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3). The FCR of groups T2 and T3 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T4 and T5. The FCR between groups T2 and T3; and between T4 and T5 did not differ significantly (P<0.05) due to dietary treatments. The present study showed that dietary AFB1 at 200 and 300 ppb levels resulted in reduced feed efficiency in broilers during 0- 6 weeks of age. This finding was in agreement with earlier reports wherein significantly poor feed efficiency due to AFB1 contaminated feed was reported (Patil et al., 2013; Sharma et al., 2014a; Silambarasan et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2015; Singh et al., 2016; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a; Singh et al., 2013b; Khatke et al., 2012b; Sharma et al., 2015; Shamsudeen et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2011; Sharma et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a; Singh, 2019b; Singh, 2019e). Significant reduction in feed efficiency due to presence of AFB1 in diet in a dose-dependent manner was also recorded (Verma et al., 2004; Kubena et al., 1998; Reddy et al., 1982; Rosa et al., 2001).

3.2 Organ Weights

The data pertaining to relative organ weights (liver, heart, spleen and bursa of Fabricius) expressed as percentage of live weight of birds were statistically analyzed and presented in Table 2.

3.2.1 Liver

The relative weights of liver in AFB1 fed groups T2 and T3 was higher (P<0.05) than that of control (T1). The relative weights of liver in T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3 and statistically similar to that of control (T1). The relative weights of liver in group T2 was lower (P<0.05) than that of T3, indicating that higher (300 ppb) level of AFB1 further caused significant adverse effects in addition to 200 ppb level of AFB1. The present study revealed that dietary AFB1 at 200 and 300 ppb levels in broiler chickens resulted in increased (P<0.05) relative weights of liver. This result was in agreement with earlier reports wherein significant increase in the relative weights of liver due to AFB1 (0.25 to 5 ppm) feeding was reported (Patil et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2013b; Sharma et al., 2015; Shamsudeen et al., 2014; Singh, 2019a; Singh, 2019b; Singh, 2019e; Khatke et al., 2012c; Silambarasan et al., 2015; Giambrone et al., 1985a; Giambrone et al., 1985b; Kubena et al., 1998;Raju and Devegowda, 2000; Rosa et al., 2001; Miazzo et al., 2000; Sapcota et al., 2007).

3.2.2 Heart

The relative weights of heart did not vary significantly among various dietary treatments i.e. dietary AFB1 at 200 and 300 ppb levels did not produce any significant effect on relative heart weight. The study further revealed that incorporation of toxin binder to the aflatoxin contaminated feed did not show any significant effect on relative weights of heart. This result was in agreement with those of earlier reports (Singh et al., 2013b; Sharma et al., 2015; Singh, 2019a; Singh, 2019b; Singh, 2019e; Khatke et al., 2012c). However, significant increase in the relative heart weights due to dietary aflatoxin ranging from 3 to 5 ppm was reported by several researchers (Kubena et al., 1990; Kubena et al., 1998; Bailey et al., 1998; Ledoux et al., 1999; Rosa et al., 2001). The present study indicated no significant effect of 300 ppb dietary AFB1 on relative weights of heart which could be due to low level of aflatoxin in feed.

3.2.3 Spleen

The relative weights of spleen in AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) was higher (P<0.05) than that of control group (T1). The relative weights of spleen in groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than those of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) and statistically similar to that of control (T1). The results revealed that dietary AFB1 at 200 and 300 ppb levels in broiler chickens resulted in increased (P<0.05) relative weights of spleen. The relative weights of spleen in group T2 was lower (P<0.05) than that of T3, indicating that 300 ppb dietary AFB1 further resulted in significant ill effects of aflatoxicosis in addition to 200 ppb AFB1. This result was in agreement with that of Sharma et al. (2014a) who also reported significant increase in relative weights of spleen at 250 ppb level AFB1 contaminated feed in broiler chickens. Khatke et al. (2012c) also reported significant increase in relative weights of spleen at 300 ppb AFB1 contaminated feed in broiler chickens. Significant increase in relative spleen weights due to aflatoxicosis caused by dietary AFB1 content ranging from 1 to 5 ppm has also been reported by several earlier researchers (Singh et al., 2013b; Kubena et al., 1990; Bailey et al., 1998; Kubena et al., 1998; Rosa et al., 2001).

3.2.4 Bursa of Fabricius

The relative weight of bursa of Fabricius in AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) was lower (P<0.05) than that of control (T1). The relative weights of bursa in T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3; and statistically similar to that of control. The relative weights of bursa of group T2 was higher (P<0.05) than that of T3, indicating that 300 ppb AFB1 further resulted in significant ill effects on relative weights of bursa in addition to 200 ppb AFB1. This result revealed that AFB1 contamination in feed caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in relative weights of bursa. Significant decrease in the relative weights of bursa due to dietary AFB1 was also reported by several researchers (Patil et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2013b; Sharma et al., 2015; Shamsudeen et al., 2014; Singh, 2019a; Singh, 2019b; Singh, 2019e; Khatke et al., 2012c; Silambarasan et al., 2015). A severe and significant regression of bursa in broilers was observed by Thaxton et al. (1974) at 0.75 ppm and higher level of AFB1. Significant reduction in bursal weight due to dietary AFB1 was also reported by Chattopadhyay et al. (1985); Gopi (2006); Verma et al. (2004).

3.3 Effect on Serum Biochemistry

The data pertaining to various biochemical parameters (serum protein, cholesterol, uric acid, SGPT and SGOT) was statistically analyzed and the mean values are presented in Table 3.

3.3.1 Serum Protein

The serum protein level of control group (T1) was higher (P<0.05) than that of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3). The serum protein value of group T3 was lower (P<0.05) than that of T2. The serum protein content of T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3, and statistically similar to that of control (T1). The result indicated that dietary AFB1 at 200 or 300 ppb levels reduced (P<0.05) the serum protein content in broiler chickens. A significant decrease in serum protein due to feeding AFB1 contaminated diet has also been reported by earlier researchers (Patil et al., 2013; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a; Singh et al., 2013b; Singh et al., 2011; Singh, 2019a; Singh, 2019b; Singh, 2019e; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Sharma et al., 2014b; Khatke et al., 2012c; Kubena et al., 1998; Ledoux et al., 1999; Raju and Devegowda, 2000; Gopi, 2006). The decrease in total serum protein by AFB1 feeding has been reported due to reduced content of albumin and β globulin (Pier, 1992). Reduced value of serum albumin and globulin has also been reported by Huff et al. (1992). Other researchers reported that decrease in serum protein by aflatoxin feeding was attributed to failure in digestion and absorption of protein in gastro-intestinal tract (Voight et al., 1980) and inhibition of protein synthesis due to AFB1 contamination in diet (Sarasin and Moule, 1973). Groopman et al. (1996) also reported that the decline in serum protein may be due to decline in protein synthesis by forming adduct with DNA, RNA and protein and inhibit RNA synthesis and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity as well as causing degranulation of endoplasmic reticulum.

Table 2: Effect of aflatoxin B1 and Mycodetox B2 on relative organ weights (% live weight) of broiler chickens

Table 3: Effect of aflatoxin B1 and Mycodetox B2 on serum biochemical parameters in broiler chickens

3.3.2 Serum Cholesterol

The serum cholesterol content of control group (T1) was higher (P<0.05) than those of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3). The cholesterol content of groups T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3, and statistically similar to that of control (T1). The cholesterol content between groups T2 and T3 were statistically similar. This result revealed that dietary AFB1 at 200 or 300 ppb levels resulted in reduced (P<0.05) serum cholesterol levels in broiler chickens. Khatke et al. (2012c) also reported significantly reduced cholesterol content due to aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. However, Silambarsan et al. (2016) reported no significant effect on cholesterol content due to 300 ppb AFB1 in broiler chickens. Significant reduction in the cholesterol content due to aflatoxicosis was also reported by earlier researchers (Singh and Mandal, 2013; Bailey et al., 1998; Kececi et al., 1998; Raju and Devegowda, 2000).

3.3.3 Serum Uric Acid

The serum uric acid content of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) was lower (P<0.05) than that of control group (T1). The uric acid values of groups T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3, and statistically similar to that of control (T1). The results revealed that dietary AFB1 at 200 and 300 ppb levels in broilers resulted in decreased (P<0.05) uric acid content. Oguz et al. (2000); Safameher (2008) also reported that uric acid level was decreased when 50 and 500 ppb AFB1 containing diet, respectively was fed to broiler chickens. Significantly reduced content of uricacid due to aflatoxicosis was also observed in several other studies (Khatke et al., 2012c; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a; Singh et al., 2013b; Singh et al., 2011; Singh, 2019a; Singh, 2019b; Singh, 2019e; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Sharma et al., 2014b; Bailey et al., 1998; Kececi et al., 1998; Denli et al., 2009).

3.3.4 Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transferase

The SGPT value in AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) was higher (P<0.05) than that of control group (T1). The SGPT value between T2 and T3 was statistically similar. The SGPT value of groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3, and statistically similar to that of control (T1). This result revealed that dietary AFB1 at 200 and 300 ppb levels resulted in increased (P<0.05) levels of SGPT. This result was in agreement with that of Khatke et al. (2012c) who also reported significantly increased levels of SGPT during aflatoxicosis. Singh et al. (2013b); Denli et al. (2009); Eraslan et al. (2006) also reported an increase in the activity of SGPT with 1 ppm of AFB1 contaminated diet. Significant increase in the level of SGPT activity due to aflatoxicosis was also reported by several researchers (Singh et al., 2013a; Shi et al., 2009; Kermanshahi et al., 2009).

3.3.5 Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transferase

The SGOT activity of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) was higher (P<0.05) than that of control (T1). The SGOT value of groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3, and statistically similar to that of control (T1). The SGOT activity value of group T3 was higher than that of T2. This result revealed that dietary AFB1 at 200 and 300 ppb levels resulted in increased (P<0.05) SGOT activity. This result was in agreement with that of Khatke et al. (2012c) who also reported significantly increased level of SGOT activity due to aflatoxicosis caused by 300 ppb dietary AFB1. Singh et al. (2013b); Denli et al. (2009); Eraslan et al. (2006) also reported significantly increased activity of SGOT with 1 ppm of aflatoxin contaminated diet. Safameher (2008) also observed elevated SGOT activity in chickens with 0.5 ppm of AFB1 contaminated diet. Increased activities of SGOT due to dietary aflatoxin were also reported by Singh et al. (2013a); Shi et al. (2009); Raju and Devegowda (2000).

4. Conclusion

It was concluded that dietary AFB1 at 200 or 300 ppb levels resulted in reduced production performance, increase in the relative weights of liver and spleen; regression of bursa; decreased serum protein, cholesterol, uric acid and increased levels of SGPT and SGOT. However, dietary incorporation of Mycodetox B2 in the aflatoxin contaminated diet alleviated the adverse effects of aflatoxicosis on production performance, organ weights and serum biochemistry in broiler chickens.

 

This article was originally published in Journal of Poultry Science and Technology, April-June, 2019. Volume 07, Issue 02, Pages 38-47.

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