Article published the October 9, 2020
Avian coccidiosis is one of the most economically damaging infectious diseases affecting poultry. The etiologic agent is Eimeria spp., an obligate eukaryotic intracellular parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa, which infects chickens’ intestinal tracts and is transmitted through a fecal-to-oral route (7,49). Clinical manifestations of infection include damage to the intestinal epithel ...
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Article published the September 29, 2020
The average commercial broiler consumes 3.2 kg of feed over 35 days to achieve 1.8 kg of body weight, compared with more than 20 kg of feed over 112 days to attain the same weight in the 1920’s. This improvement in poultry growth performance has been achieved, in large part, through advances in animal genetics, health, and nutrition, including the use of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters s ...
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Article published the August 5, 2020
1. Introduction The CXC chemokine family consists of two subfamilies, delineated by the presence or absence of the tripeptide Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif located in the NH2-terminal region and designated as ELRþ or ELR CXC chemokines, respectively (Fernandez and Lolis, 2002). CXCL8, also known as interleukin-8 (IL-8), belongs to the ELRþ CXC chemokine subfamily and functions as a neutrop ...
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Article published the July 20, 2020
Dietary antibiotics have been used in the food animal industry for more than 60 years, not only to control infectious diseases, but also to increase feed efficiency and improve growth performance. In chickens, subtherapeutic, in-feed antibiotics can increase body weight gain up to 8% and decrease the feed conversion ratio (feed intake/body weight gain) up to 5%, both compared with an antibiotic-fr ...
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Article published the June 18, 2020
INTRODUCTION Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an acute Clostridium infection, which is characterized by severe necrosis of the intestinal mucosa (Parish, 1961). NE has recently become a significant problem for the poultry industry because of restrictions on antibiotic usage and high-density production conditions (Williams, 2005). In the United States, NE has caused enormous economic losses in the poult ...
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Article published the June 3, 2020
INTRODUCTION The human population is projected to grow to 9~10 billion by the year 2050 (Godfray et al., 2010). As a consequence of the population explosion, food animal production would confront a new array of challenges. Among these are global food security, climate change, emerging infectious diseases, regulatory ban on use of antimicrobials, high-density production conditions, and waste manag ...
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Article published the May 12, 2020
Introduction Interleukin 2 (IL2) and IL15 play key roles in the regulation of homeostasis and function of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. The effects of these cytokines on target cells are mediated by their heterotrimeric receptors that consist of a specific a-subunit and two shared subunits, IL2 and IL15 receptor b (IL2/15Rb, CD122) and a common cytokine receptor γ (γc) [ ...
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Article published the February 10, 2020
Introduction Avian coccidiosis is one of the most costly infectious diseases affecting the commercial poultry industry [1]. Coccidia that infect chickens include Eimeria acervulina, E. tenella, E. maxima, E. brunetti, E. necatrix, E. praecox, and E. mitis. These apicomplexan protists invade cells of the intestinal epithelium, evoking necrotic tissue destruction and resulting in reduced body weigh ...
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Article published the January 6, 2020
Introduction Avian coccidiosis is caused by seven species of Eimeria protozoa (E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. tenella, E. mitis, E. necatrix, E. praecox, and E. brunetti) that differ in pathogenicity and immunogenicity [1,2]. The life cycles of all Eimeria species are of the monoxenous sporozoan type. Generally, infection develops following ingestion of sporulated oocysts and release of sporozoites ...
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