• Most cows are unable to elude some level of hypocalcemia in the immediate postpartum period, with 40 to 70% of multiparous cows developing subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH; Reinhardt et al., 2011; Caixeta et al., 2015; Neves et al., 2017).
• Supplementing anions in prepartum rations is a common strategy to improve blood Ca concentrations however, SCH is often not eliminated (Leno et al., 2017).
• Feeding prepartum rations low in Ca can improve Ca status postpartum (Kichura et al., 1982) but is difficult to achieve with commonly used feedstuffs in the US (Goff, 2006).
• Feeding sodium aluminum silicate has been shown to bind to dietary calcium and improve blood Ca status in the days following parturition (Thilsing et al., 2006; Pallesen et al., 2008).
• To determine the effect of feeding sodium aluminum silicate in the prepartum period to multiparous Holstein cows on peripartum serum mineral status
Materials & Methods
• 55 multiparous Holstein cows (2nd lactation = 24 and 3rd+ lactation = 31) were enrolled 28 d prior to expected calving and randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments starting at 21 d prior to expected calving;
• Control (CON; n=29) – Contains 40% CS, 33% wheat straw, and 27% concentrate mix
• Experimental (EXP; n=26) – CON diet with the addition of sodium aluminum silicate (X-Zelit, Protekta Inc., Lucknow, Ontario, CA/Vitfoss, Graasten, DK) at 3.3% of DM, targeting 500 g/d as fed
• Blood was collected 1x/wk from enrollment until 7 d prior to expected calving, daily from 7 d prior to expected calving until 7 DIM, 3x/wk from wk 2-4, and 2 samples collected within 24 h of calving.
• Prepartum and postpartum data were analyzed separately. Data analyzed over time were subjected to repeated measures ANOVA using the MIXED procedure in SAS and the REPEATED statement for time.
• Fixed effects were trt, time, parity (2nd vs. 3rd+), and all 2-way interactions, and random effect was cow(trt)
• The difference in prevalence of SCH between treatments by day was tested with a Fisher’s exact test
Results and Implications
• Overall serum Ca concentrations were higher for cows fed EXP compared to CON during both prepartum and postpartum periods; differences were greatest during the immediate periparturient
• Overall serum P concentrations were lower for cows fed EXP compared to CON during both prepartum and postpartum periods; differences were greatest prepartum and during the immediate
• Serum Mg concentrations were lower for cows fed EXP compared to CON during the prepartum and immediate postpartum periods; however, overall postpartum serum Mg was not affected by trt.
• The prevalence of SCH in cows fed EXP was much lower than cows fed CON during the immediate periparturient period.
• Overall, feeding sodium aluminum silicate during the prepartum period resulted in markedly improved Ca status during the periparturient period.
• Caixeta, L.S., P.A. Ospina, M.B. Capel, and D.V. Nydam. 2015. The association of subclinical hypocalcemia, negative energy balance and disease with bodyweight change during the first 30 days post-partum in dairy cows milked with automatic milking systems. Vet. J. 204:150–156. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.01.021.
• Goff, J.P. 2006. Macromineral physiology and application to the feeding of the dairy cow for prevention of milk fever and other periparturient mineral disorders. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 126:237–257. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.08.005.
• Kichura, T.S., R.L. Horst, D.C. Beitz, and E.T. Littledike. 1982. Relationships between prepartal dietary calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and parturient paresis in dairy cows. J. Nutr. 112:480–487.
• Leno, B.M., C.M. Ryan, T. Stokol, D. Kirk, K.P. Zanzalari, J.D. Chapman, and T.R. Overton. 2017. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference on aspects of peripartum mineral and energy metabolism and performance of multiparous Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 100:4604–4622.doi:10.3168/jds.2016-12221.
• Neves, R.C., B.M. Leno, T. Stokol, T.R. Overton, and J.A.A. McArt. 2017. Risk factors associated with postpartum subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 100:3796–3804. doi:10.3168/jds.2016-11970.
• Pallesen, A., F. Pallesen, R.J. Jørgensen, and T. Thilsing. 2008. Effect of pre-calving zeolite, magnesium and phosphorus supplementation on periparturient serum mineral concentrations. Vet. J. 175:234–239. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.01.007.
• Reinhardt, T.A., J.D. Lippolis, B.J. McCluskey, J.P. Goff, and R.L. Horst. 2011. Prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy herds. Vet. J. 188:122–124. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.03.025.
• Thilsing, T., R.J. Jorgensen, and H.D. Poulsen. 2006. In vitro binding capacity of Zeolite A to calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in rumen fluid as influenced by changes in pH. J. Vet. Med. Ser. A 53:57–64. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0442.2006.00798
Kerwin, A.L., Ryan, C.M., Leno, B.M. Jacobsen, M., Theilgaard, P., Overton, T.R. 2017. The effect of feeding sodium aluminum silicate in the prepartum period on serum mineral concentrations in multiparous Holstein Cows. Presented at the 2017 Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers, Syracuse, NY, USA.