Engormix/Dairy Cattle/Technical articles

Broiler Goat- A Technology Explanation

Published on: 4/15/2013
Author/s : Dr.P.George Kunju John (Animal Feed Consultant)
Broiler goat has been evolved to enhance goat meat production in areas were land availability is scarce and fodder become dear. The browsing character of goats destroys the crops. Eventually goat rearing became very problematic. At this situation the new technology to grow goats in goat houses abandoning grazing, feeding high tech feed by reducing FCR to 2.5 and total removal of fodder fibre from the became a new innovation in animal industry. 
New Feed Technology
It was a common knowledge that ruminant animals could not survive with out consuming forages and fibre. Goats a small ruminant also could not be exempted. Why the ruminants eat forage was a technical question that resulted in the development of broiler goat. It is a fact that economics of feeding was the vital factor for feeding forafe to ruminant animals. The unique capability of those animals to convert non edible fibre by virtue of rumen fermentation to digestible nutrients like microbial biomass and volatile fatty acids was the bottom line. When land availability became zero for such forage cultivation the technologists were encouraged to delve into the feed technology. 
The advent of bypass nutrient technology paved the way to evolve new feeding system. It was proved that the dietary nutrients saved from rumen fermentation will reduce the nutrient losses in animal system. If dietary protein is fermented in rumen the availability of protein through microbial route at the lower tract would be less than 20%. However, if it could be bypassed it may yield around 60%. It is true for glucose and fatty acids. The above parameter was considered FCR and through practical trials it was found that broiler goat can achieve FCR 2.5 against 8 noyiced in ruminant animals.
Explaining the theory on nutritional niochemistry percpective it could be like this. If 1 mole of amino acids was fermented it may yield only 1.5 moles of ATP which may produce 18 G of microbial biomass or 12 G protein out of 100 G. In the case of starch 1 mp;e may yield only 0.8 mole glucose where as when bypassed may yield over 1.6 mole glucose. Fatty acids when fed with less fibre will yield more dietary energy. Gurther more when goatlings are fed at their preruminant stage it becomes more feasible. 
Broiler Goat Feed
Based on the new technology the special feed- a complement feed was developed. The feed production is done in modern feed plants. Pelletisation is an important process in production. The raw ingredients are selected to meet the nutritional specification of broiler goat feed such as amino acids, blucose and fatty acids. Further more the balancing of macronutrients with micronutrients is necessary to accomplish better and faster growth rate.
Along with the special goat feed sweet lick blocks and sugar syrup supplements are also evolved. The small farmers who are interested to try the new practice the availability of right feed is a problem. Since the requirement of feed is less the feed companies are not interested to produce such feed by buying the feed formula abd details. Unless a large investor steps into such a lucrative business the advantage of the same will remain hidden. 
Need for the future
Every animal husbandry practices is developed by th advanced countries. Broiler chickem has become widely adopted is an example. However broiler goat is not an interested proposition for advanced countries where there is no land shortages. Mpreover goat meat is not their choice of food. But developing the broiler goat would benefit asian, African countries very mucc. The population there also relish chevon (gooat meat). But no development agencies like FAO or world bank look into such projects in the third world. 
Sitting the example of dairy movement in India the farmers association should come forward to help themselves.
A model project
Farmer members                     10,000
Goats with one farmer             100
Total goats per annum             3 million
Total meat produced                9000 MT
Total feed required                   22500 MT
Based on the above project fund and management could be worked out. The capital costs on land, goat houses etc are not included.
Broiler Goat- A Technology Explanation - Image 1
It is a good animal production business. Since FCR accomplished is 2.5 the costing would be seen as below.
Cost of a goatling of 6kg                   INR 500
Feed for 3 months                             @500G
( INR 15000/MT)                                 675
Other expemses                                100
Sub total                                          1275
Meat 20kg @ 300/kg                        6000
The initial expenses to construct the goat houses could be covered woth in a year of operation. It would be impossible for a single farmer to start the project. Therefore a company formed by the farmers can make it a lucrative project. 
Author/s :
Dr. George K John graduated in 1967 on Bachelor of Veterinary Science from University of Kerala, India. He then began to work as a veterinary officer at Amul dairy, the largest dairy cooperative in Asia. He carried out extensive research in rumen manipulation and bypass protein after his post graduation from University of New England, Australia. He developed Urea Molasses Block, bypass protein feed, broiler goat and several feed supplements. Currently he is actively engaged in freelance consultancy to feed plants, Livestock farms, universities in India and abroad.
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