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11th International Congress on the Biology of the Fish

11th International Congress on the Biology of the Fish

August 3, 2014 to August 7, 2014
Heriot-Watt University - Edinburgh - United Kingdom
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11th International Congress on the Biology of the Fish. B. Small (SIU)
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We are excited to have a great diversity of symposia proposed for the ICBF2014 in Edinburgh, once again confirming the biannual AFS Physiology Section meeting as the foremost international Conference on Fish Physiology.

If you are considering presenting in one of these symposia we would like to hear from you. In the first instance please contact the relevant contact person indicated. We will be opening abstract submission towards the end of 2013.

We look forward to welcoming you to Edinburgh in August 2014

Mark Hartl, Brian Small, Don MacKinlay

(Find more info at


Please click on the link below to submit your abstract(s).

If you require a letter confirming acceptance for the purpose of obtaining a travel grant or visa, please also send your abstract to the respective symposium organizers to speed up the review process.

If you are unsure which symposium to submit an abstract to, please discuss with the respective Syposium organizers. Review proposed symposia here.


Abstract Submission Deadline: 31 March 2014


The Edinburgh Conference Centre is the dedicated all year round facility located in the heart of Heriot-Watt University's Edinburgh woodland campus. 

Proposed Simposia

Application of physiology to improve fish culture

Moderators: Don MacKinlay and Alastair Lyndon

Fish are cultured throughout the world for conservation, restoration, harvest, recreation, food and ornamental markets, and scientific research. This symposium aims to highlight the practical ways that the many aspects of research have been applied to improve fish culture. Sessions will include the following topics: Genetic Management; Monitoring Stocking Strategies; Nutrition and Feeding; Minimizing Stress and Handling; Environmental Interactions; Structural Upgrades; Gamete Manipulation, Maturation and Spawning; Growth and Metabolism; Water Quality Management; and Disease Tolerance and Biosecurity. Come to this Symposium to hear about the latest advances in fish culture, and to present information on how your projects have improved their fish culture practices to better meet the goals of your agency, program or stakeholders?


Air-breathing fish - in nature and aquaculture

Moderators: Sjannie Lefevre, Mark Bayley and Tobias Wang

Air-breathing fish show an astonishing variety in the form and function of their air-breathing organs, reflecting their evolution on numerous independent occasions in a diversity of environments, ranging from sluggish swamps to fast-flowing waters. While air-breathing fish primarily occur in tropical freshwater, they are nevertheless present in all climatic regions. The key position of these fish in the evolution of vertebrate air-breathing, ultimately allowing for the invasion of the terrestrial habitat, has received considerable attention in an attempt to understand their natural history, morphology and physiology. Recently it has become apparent that air-breathing fish provide a significant source of human protein and are strongly represented in tropical aquaculture, where basic information on the biology of the relevant species is urgently needed to improve rearing conditions and optimise growth. This session is dedicated to air-breathing fish, with the aim of providing a forum for the presentation of new data from a broad range of topics as well as an overview of the current state of our knowledge.


Understanding maturation change: a physiological perspective

Moderators: Peter Wright & Andrew Davie

Substantial decreases in the average size and age at maturity have occurred in many exploited fish stocks resulting in a reduction of yield. Equally, early maturation of fish under aquaculture conditions is also a major problem affecting yields of farmed species. Whilst the causes of these changes have been widely debated it is now recognised that an understanding of the processes that regulate fish reproductive physiology is essential for an informed interpretation. Studies performed to date on sexual maturation have relied on gross morphology and histological examination to assess maturation commitment, sometimes in combination with endocrine profiling. These studies alone do not provide an understanding of the onset of puberty. In contrast, recent developments in transcriptomics are enabling a significant jump in the level of understanding of the brain pituitary gonad (BPG) axis and its entrainment. Work in model fish species have managed to describe a number of key regulators in the photoneuroendocrine (e.g. clock genes), somatotropic (e.g. IGF & prolactin) and gonadotropic (e.g. kisspeptin, GnRH, FSH/LH) axes. This symposium will bring together all those interested in understanding maturation and the causes of changes seen in the wild and in aquaculture.


Fish in a Toxic World: Biomarkers and Impacts of Exposure

Moderators: Mark G J Hartl, Tyson MacCormack and Lynn Weber

Aquatic environments offer and sustain diverse habitats for fish, but also attract an ever-increasing level of anthropogenic activity, both commercial and recreational in nature. Consequently these environments are under continued pressure owing to the discharge of communal and industrial effluent and atmospheric fallout, as well as pesticides from agricultural runoff and antifouling agents. The input of these often toxic contaminants, as well as re-introduction from secondary sources, such as sediment deposits, has had often subtle, but nonetheless dramatic impacts on fish and fisheries. Understanding the underlying routes of contaminant exposure and mechanisms of toxicity in fish, on all levels of biological organisation, is vital in order to protect vulnerable species that often inhabit key positions in the structure of delicately balanced aquatic communities. As in previous years, this symposium provides a popular multidisciplinary platform for researchers, particularly graduate students, to present and discuss their work on mechanisms of physiological impairment, comparative approaches to toxicology and associated ecotoxicological biomarkers of various established and emerging contaminants.


Fish cell cultures as a tool for fish physiology research

Moderators: Bruria Funkenstein, Niels Bols, Encarnacion Capilla

The use of fish cell cultures provides a useful tool for both research of a variety of physiological systems related to fish biology such as growth (muscle and bone cell cultures), reproduction (pituitary and gonadal cell cultures), diseases (head kidney cells and macrophages) and many more as well as environmental toxicology. The symposium will bring together researchers from various research areas that are using either primary or stable cell cultures that were obtained from various fish organs/tissues and have different characteristics (epithelial, neuronal, fibroblastic, etc). The purpose of the symposium will be to share methodologies of preparing fish cell cultures and compare them with those from the same organs from higher vertebrates. Presentations should include the use of these cells cultures to study factors affecting differentiation, gene expression, biological activity of recombinant proteins and peptides, receptor binding and cell signaling.


Sensing the Environment

Moderator: Kieth Tierney

The session aims to bring together junior to established researchers in the field of fish sensory biology to link signals (sensory input from various modes, with an emphasis on olfaction) to receivers (molecular level and above) in order to understand the future of fish populations in a changing environment. Of particular focus is how current research has built upon the legacy of Art Hasler and his seminal work on olfactory-mediated behaviors within and across species.


5th International Symposium on Burbot (Lota lota)

Moderators: Martin Stapanian and Chris Myrick

Burbot Lota lota is the only member of the cod family (Gadidae) that lives exclusively in freshwater and it is one of only two freshwater fishes that have a circumpolar distribution. Burbot are benthic predators and in some systems may be the system's top predator. However, the overall lack of commercial and sport interest in burbot has undoubtedly contributed to its being ignored or regarded as a "trash" fish by some management agencies. As a result, burbot population dynamics are not well described and in many waters they are lacking in comprehensive management. Although burbot are widespread and abundant throughout much of their natural range, there are many populations that have been extirpated, endangered, or in serious decline. This symposium will contain studies on the biology, ecology, management, and culture of burbot. Of special interest will be (1) studies on re-establishing extirpated burbot populations and rehabilitating populations that are imperiled; (2) life-history studies of burbot, particularly of juvenile and larval stages; (3) bioenergetics and population dynamics studies; and (4) commercial and management applications.


Winter Fish Biology: The Dynamic World of Icy Rivers

Moderator: Jill Leonard and Eva Enders

We propose a symposium on overwintering in riverine fish communities specifically linking hydrology and ice dynamics to fish physiology and behavior with reference to ongoing changing winter conditions resulting from climate change and other environmental perturbations. This symposium would bring together researchers with a variety of backgrounds to discuss the response of fish to dynamic winter conditions including fish behavior, physiology, and ecology, as well as physical aspects of the environment (hydrology, geomorphology, etc.) In recent years, there has been an upswing in interest associated with winter biology; however, there is still a general paucity of information in the scientific literature on basic winter biology of fishes and their response to the winter environment. This is alarming given the current alterations we see in habitats during winter (e.g. urbanization effects, land use changes) as well as the predicted alterations expected from climate change. We are focusing on lotic systems, ranging from small streams to large river systems, since these freshwater systems will likely show the most immediate and profound alterations as a result of environmental change. We are focusing on lotic systems, ranging from small streams to large river systems, since these freshwater systems will likely show the most immediate and profound alterations as a result of environmental change but are open to relevant contributions from all aquatic environments.


Growth and Metabolism of Fishes

Moderators: Brian Small, Brian Peterson and Suraj Unniappan

Numerous factors control growth and metabolism in fish. These include food abundance, digestibility, water quality, temperature, fish density, social interactions, and exposure to pathogens. The mechanisms that regulate growth are complex and include physiological and biochemical processes, hormonal interactions, and environmental cues. This symposium will focus on recent advances on our understanding of somatic growth and metabolism of fish. Topics covered will include how the environment, fish tissues, and associated pathways act and interact to regulate growth and metabolism. Emphasis will be on hormones that influence muscle tissue growth and metabolic processes, including interactions with behavior and environment as they affect food intake and nutrient partitioning. We intend to invite speakers for this symposium and encourage contributions from investigators conducting fundamental research on the regulatory aspects of growth and metabolism in fish. Student participation is especially encouraged.


Physiological Perspectives of Fish Habitats

Moderators: Cory Suski and Steven Cooke

Huey's seminal paper (1991; Am Nat) on the physiological consequences of habitat selection stimulated much thought about how organismal condition was influenced by various aspects of the habitat landscape in wild animals, including fish. Recent years have seen the development of new paradigms, such as "energy landscapes", which have been used to help explain how organisms use various habitats, and the consequences of doing so Fish, perhaps more than any other taxa, have been well studied in terms of habitat use and selection. Similarly, there is much research on fish physiology and environmental relations in a laboratory context Less common are efforts to use experimental and observational approaches to explore the physiological and energetic consequences of habitat selection in the wild. Doing so would provide important linkages between organisms and their environment, which presumably underlie important performance metrics such as fitness. Beyond fundamental interest in this topic, there is also much applied relevance. In the face of extensive habitat alteration, regulators and environmental managers need to understand mechanisms by which habitat degradation results in changes in fish abundance and community structure. Relatedly, there is also opportunity to use organism-level indicators to examine the success of habitat restoration efforts. Given this background, the focus of this symposium will be to understand the influence of variation in habitat quality on the condition (physiology, health, energetics, fitness) of wild marine and freshwater fish. If there is sufficient interest we intend to pursue the development of a module in a peer reviewed journal to publish a selection of papers arising from the symposium.


Tropical Fish - A Biological Goldmine

Moderators: Dal Val, Vera Almeida-Val and Renata G. Moreira

Tropical fish species inhabit a diversity of freshwater and marine environments. Many fish species from these locations have been raised in temperate regions or traded as ornamental fish worldwide. These fish evolved under never-ending fluctuating conditions that include extremes of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, temperature, acidic and ion-poor waters, exposure to UV, long migrations, and biological competition, among others. Diversity of biological characteristics are found among these animals as well as extreme abilities to adjust reproduction, behavioral, morphological, biochemical and physiological traits to face these natural challenges - a true goldmine for fish biologists. However, many tropical habitats are currently under significant pressures as overfishing, urban pollution, invasion of exotic species, eutrophication, acidification, mining, deforestation, climate changes and global warming that directly or indirectly severely affect fish. Modern technologies have been used to show the molecular mechanisms that allow tropical fish to face and/or adapt to environmental changes. As many fish species remain to be described and an even larger number yet unknown from a biological point of view, tropical fish continue to be a significant scientific challenge. The symposium "Tropical fish - a biological goldmine" welcomes everyone interested to share their findings, questions, and suggestions or to hear about the most recent and modern advances related to an otherwise highly diverse group of fish. See you in Edinburgh, UK.


Conservation physiology of fish migration

Moderators: Christian Tudorache and Julian Metcalfe

Migration is a widespread phenomenon among fishes, allowing them to take advantage of a diversity of habitats and to escape hostile conditions. Importantly, these movements do not need to involve long journeys between distant biomes to realize substantial benefits. Even small shifts between different habitats can be of advantage and release environmental pressure from the populations. In this scenario, anthropogenic influences can form substantial threats to fish populations and species and therefore have to be recognised and mitigated.
Research on behavioural and physiological aspects of fish migration can help to better understand and manage the existing populations. Swimming energetics, biomechanical aspects and preference choices during migration have a strong effect on population distributions and reproductive success and therefore are sensitive to anthropogenic threats. A multidisciplinary and integrative conservation physiological approach can help inform a prioritization scheme for management of freshwater and marine fish species and ecosystems.
The aim of this symposium is to highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of fish migration and to help understand the multiple interactions with current and future human-induced environmental changes. We are offering an engaging and intriguing multidisciplinary session on fish migration.

BIA: a new tool in study of fish condition and energetics

Moderators: F. Joseph Margraf, Kyle J. Hartman, and Andrew W. Hafs

Although it has long had use in assessing water content in humans, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was first suggested as a tool of assessing fish body condition in 2001. Since that time incorporation of BIA methods and applications to fish ecology and management have grown rapidly. Thus, BIA technology and application to fisheries is new and information on standard methods is scarce. For that reason, this symposium seeks to bring together researchers who have direct experience with BIA to present applications to fish ecology and management to the international audience. The session will begin with a demonstration of the technology and conclude with an expert panel session in which standardized methods for applying BIA and potential applications will be discussed. In between, research papers in which BIA is applied to fish ecology and management will be presented.


The effects of environmental change on the links between physiology and behaviour

Moderators: Neil B. Metcalfe and Shaun S. Killen

Over recent years there has been a surge of interest in explaining the persistence of individual variation in both physiological and behavioural traits, and in investigating covariation between them (e.g. between an individual fish's metabolic rate and its dominance, or its stress responsiveness and personality). Although there is evidence that such traits can be associated, the casual mechanisms of the relationships are only just coming to light. There is also increasing evidence that the strength of any such correlations is not consistent, so that the extent to which an animal's physiology is linked to its behaviour may depend on the prevailing environmental conditions. This Symposium will explore these issues, focussing in particular on whether links between physiological and behavioural traits are altered by environmental stressors. An appreciation of the nature of these context-dependent relationships is vital if we are to interpret the diverse correlations found between physiological and behavioural traits; the results also have implications for our attempts to predict the effects of environmental change on populations. This symposium will be of interest to all those interested in links between physiology and behaviour, and in how physiological traits influence the performance and fitness of fish in their natural environment.


Physiological Genomics

Moderators: Avner Cnaani and Elena Sarropoulou

Novel and low cost high throughput technologies increased the feasibility of research in non-model species in terms of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and other systems approaches. The use of these high-throughput methodologies for linking genes as well as gene regulation to the function of complex biological pathways is an emerging field in fish research, that hold a great potential for scientific breakthroughs and for the development of new concepts. In spite of the notable progress in developing genomic resources for various non-model fish species during the last decade, the integration of these tools and knowledge with physiological research is still in its infancy, and with only scarce collaboration between molecular biologists and physiologists. The Physiological Genomics symposium will review the state of the art of advanced technologies in genomics research, and their applications in various physiological studies, presenting a wide variety of experimental and computational studies linking genes and pathways to physiological functions.


The Physiology of Elasmobranch Fishes

Moderators: Gary Anderson, Pat Wright and Suzie Currie

Elasmobranchs occupy a unique niche amongst fishes. They are cartilaginous, generally large and their predatory habits make them intrinsically fascinating to humans. Many other distinct traits have captivated the attention of physiologists for decades. This symposium will gather together an international group of top physiologists studying aspects of sensory perception, osmoregulation, acid-base/ion regulation, hormonal regulation and metabolism.


Molecular and Physiological Mechanisms of the Fish Kidney

Moderators: Akira Kato and J. Larry Renfro

In the aquatic environment, the kidney is one of the major regulators of the solute and water homeostasis of the body fluid. In fresh water, teleosts excrete excess water by producing large amount of hypotonic urine. On the other hand, marine teleosts conserve water, and they excrete and concentrate divalent ions in only a small amount of urine. In elasmobranchs, the kidney produces urine from which a large portion of urea is reabsorbed. In addition, the kidney is an endocrine organ that secretes cortisol, catecholamines, renin, erythropoietin, stanniocalcin, etc., and is also the major site of hematopoiesis from where the erythrocytes, thrombocytes, and leukocytes originate. The importance of the kidney in aquatic environment has been described for ~80 years, but there are still many open questions in this field. Futhermore, the kidney of small model fishes has recently become a model system for the study of renal diseases and regeneration. In this symposium, we aim to discuss latest developments in our understanding of the fish kidney with colleagues from around the world.


Swimming Physiology of Fish

Moderators: A. P.Palstra and J. V. Planas

Swimming is an important aspect of the life history of fish in the aquatic environment. However, the physiological effects of swimming on growth, metabolism, reproduction and immunity are not fully understood in fish. Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e. farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish welfare. For this purpose, the FitFish satellite workshop ( and the first and second symposium on the Swimming Physiology of Fish were organized as part of the 9th and 10th International Congress of Fish Biology (Barcelona, 2010 and Madison, 2012). A special issue of Fish Physiology and Biochemistry (37 issue 2) and the book "Swimming Physiology of Fish - Towards Using Exercise to Farm a Fit Fish in Sustainable Aquaculture" have been published. The present symposium intends to continue efforts to bring together scientists covering various aspects of the swimming physiology of fish and present the most up-to-date information on this relevant topic.


Lampreys - Performance, Physiology, and Coping with Environmental disturbances

Moderator: Matt G Mesa and Stacia A. Sower

Lampreys have been called "living fossils" and are important contributors to the structure and function of freshwater and marine ecosystems. As members of the superclass Agnatha, they share with hagfishes a special place in evolutionary history as the only living representatives of the primitive jawless fishes. Because the lineage of lampreys extends back for over 500 million years, study of their physiology, performance, and how they cope with environmental stressors can provide great insight into comparative anatomy and physiology. For this symposium, we will bring to together lamprey experts from around the world to share new insights into lamprey physiology and performance, including endocrinology, reproduction, genetics, swimming performance, metabolism, and ecology. There will be particular emphasis on the responses of lampreys to environmental stressors such as contaminants, habitat degradation, and climate change. Who knows?â€"what we learn about these evolutionary icons may provide clues into the fate of humans facing a world undergoing some serious environmental changes.


Ion and acid-base regulation in fish

Moderators: Colin Brauner, Greg Goss and Steve McCormick

There have been many recent advances in both our understanding of fish ion transport mechanisms, acid-base physiology and how they are regulated in fish. This symposium will bring together the top researchers in the broad field of ion and of acid-base regulation in fishes to discuss the current topics and future directions for the field. We plan to have sub-sections throughout the day that will deal with new advances in our understanding of: a) euryhalinity, b) smoltification, c) endocrine control of ion regulation, and d) acid-base regulation. The symposia will highlight researchers using whole animal approaches and those following more cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these regulatory events. This symposium will bring together speakers interested in a holistic approach to understanding the mechanisms involved in alteration and regulation of ion and acid-base status in fishes. In recent years, this symposium has become one of the de facto main venues for the field of ion and acid-base regulation in fish, attracting scientists from all over the world on a regular basis and serving as a strong focal point for international exchange of ideas. Following from very successful symposia co-organized by the three of us in Vancouver, Manaus, St John's, Portland, Barcelona and most recently Madison we would like to continue on and expand this tradition with at least a full day symposium.


Biology of the Hagfishes

Moderator: Sue Edwards and Greg Goss

Hagfishes are considered the most ancient of the extant jawless fishes and represent a critical junction in the evolutionary physiology of vertebrates and therefore the study of their physiology, developmental biology and immunology is of keen interest to scientists worldwide. It has been 15 years since there was a symposium dedicated to a review of current hagfish research and in that time there have been a number of major advancements in available technologies. This symposium aims to explore the current research on these unique creatures bringing together hagfish biologists from a range of disciplines including systematics, fisheries, ecology, physiology, developmental biology and immunology.


Climate change and expanding dead zones: from the tropics to the poles, how will fish adapt?

Moderators: Jay Nelson and Dal Val

Climate changes and other anthropogenic factors are altering fish habitat across the globe. These include, but are not limited to, the warming of waters, expansion of anoxic dead zones, changing freshwater hydrology and ocean currents. How fish respond physiologically and behaviorally will determine which fishes survive the opening of the newest geological age, the Anthropocene. Extreme natural environmental challenges are already found in many tropical freshwater and marine coast (intertidal) waters. Recent anthropogenic changes are adding challenges to these already extreme environmental conditions imposing risks to fish diversity. This symposium will feature analyses of whole animals in their natural environment responding to recent environmental perturbations, experiments under laboratory conditions designed to forecast future environments and how fish will deal with them as well as approaches at the cellular and molecular levels.


Extra- and intra-cellular signaling: Conserved responses controlling diverse physiological functions

Moderators: Steve F. Perry and Pung-Pung Hwang

The serial conferences on the Biology of Fish have greatly contributed to the advancement of knowledge in a host of related fields in the broad discipline of fish physiology. Past symposia at the biennial conference have largely focused on discrete functional themes such as ionic or acid-base regulation rather than integrating across themes. Given the recent advances in molecular/cellular physiological approaches, we think that signaling is a timely and appropriate topic for a symposium which can be integrated into a variety of disciplines in fish physiology including ionic regulation, acid-base balance, chemoreception, cardiorespiratory function and neurobiology. In this symposium, we aim to bring together researchers using molecular/cell biological, functional genomics or model species approaches and who are interested in common signaling aspects pertaining to diverse physiological processes. The specific goal of this symposium is to present the state-of-the-art on how fish regulate their physiological functions through the mediation of extra- and intra-cellular signaling pathways to cope with changing environments and fluctuating metabolic demands. We anticipate that this symposium will stimulate a dynamic exchange of ideas and foster future collaboration.


Intrinsic and Extrinsic Regulation of Fish Cardiovascular Function

Moderators: Kurt Gamperl, Holly Shiels and Ben Speers-Roesch

Cardiovascular function is intimately related to a fish's ability to perform essential life functions (e.g. swim, digest and assimilate food) and plays a critical role in determining aerobic scope, and thus, thermal and hypoxia tolerance. How the cardiovascular system responds to these abiotic and biotic challenges is dependent upon alterations in cardiac physiology and anatomy, and upon the humoral, nervous and other control systems that modulate heart function, vascular resistance and blood flow distribution. This cardiovascular plasticity is key to understanding the evolution and ecology of fishes, and the degree to which various species may be impacted by the changes in water temperature, pH and oxygen levels that are predicted to occur over the next century in the world's freshwater and marine environments. Students and established researchers are invited to present multidisciplinary (genomic, proteomic, cellular, organ, and/or whole animal) research in this symposium that highlights the cardiovascular system's capacity to deal with various perturbations, the mechanisms that permit or limit this plasticity, and/or the implications of changes in heart and vascular function for fish survival and performance in nature or intensive culture.


Fish reproductive physiology and biotechnology

Moderators: Luiz Renato de Franca and Rudiger Schulz

Reproduction is among the major life processes that along with growth and metabolism, excretion, or immunity determine the physiology of fish. Hence, research into reproductive physiology is of great relevance not only for basic biology but also has important implications for applied research fields, in which biotechnological approaches in the context of finfish aquaculture or bio-conservation play increasingly important roles. This symposium will focus on advances in our understanding of the functioning of the main regulatory system controlling reproductive processes, the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis, at the cellular and molecular level. This includes external factors such as photoperiod, nutrition, or endocrine disruptors and toxicants, but also endogenous factors such as hormones and growth factors. Moreover, advances in sex determination and sex differentiation will fit into this symposium. Particularly in relation to the gonads, this symposium will encompass the fine regulation and interactions among germ and somatic cells, as well as the physiology/biology of germ stem cells and their microenvironment (niche). Finally, this symposium will include recent fish reproductive biotechnologies involving germ cells (xeno)transplantation as a tool to investigate gametogenesis, to preserve the germplasm of endangered species, to produce commercially valuable fish species using surrogated recipients, or to facilitate the generation of transgenic fish.


Stress in fish. Mechanisms, responses and adaptations

Moderators: Lluis Tort and Matt Vijayan
Following the tradition of the Fish Biology Congress, the 11th Congress will offer the topic of stress in fish as no other conferences provide a specific symposium on this subject. The symposium includes contributions from gene response to overall physiology and behaviour of fish under stress. Topics on the regulation of stress response, effects of different kinds of stressors, short and long term adaptation and even welfare versus stress are considered under this symposium. The area of stress and fish is a wide one including responses to physical stressors, toxicants and chemicals, husbandry and aquaculture or social stressors.