Poultry water treatments and Salmonella prevalence in broilers - Brian Fairchild

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June 11, 2018

In this discussion or topic finding of salmonella and prevention, where salmonella gallisepticum fund before in the broiler chicken?

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June 11, 2018
Have you ever tried to see the effectiveness of hypochlorous acide for prevention of salmonella in broilers?
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Joshua Jendza Joshua Jendza
Animal Nutritionist
June 14, 2018

metin öngül Chlorine can be effective, but you need to keep an eye on the pH of the water. Chlorine-based products work best at a pH of 6.5 or lower. Above that and the hypochlorite (ClO-) predominates, when what you want for effective microbial inhibition is the hypochlorous acid (ClOH).

Many commercial chlorination set-ups include an acid to "activate" the chlorine product by first reducing the pH of the water to a level that supports effective chlorination.

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July 21, 2018

It has a side effect, it causes severe enteritis during production, which leads to prolapse sometimes.

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June 11, 2018
We have not tested that treatment. It has been looked at by other studies.
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Joshua Jendza Joshua Jendza
Animal Nutritionist
June 11, 2018
It is a common mistake to think about water treatment as something to be done only at the end of production. As Brian says, control needs to begin early on in the flow, and needs to be maintained throughout in order to keep the pressure on the microbes.

We will be presenting some data on feed and water acidification using formic acid at PSA this summer. We found that continuous water acidification did improve cecal Salmonella.
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Pat Welch Pat Welch
BS = Microbiology, MS = Physiology (Microbiology
Novus International Novus International
Missouri, United States
June 27, 2018

Joshua Jendza Field trials using an organic acid blend of propionic, acetic and benzoic acids administered the first two weeks and the last week of the growout have shown a significant impact on reducing Salmonella at processing (bird washes). Organic acids used at the "proper" dose early and late in the growout addresses early colonization and late recontamination. What you're doing is reducing bacterial (pathogenic and saprophytic) numbers to the upper GIT and respiratory tract. Most organic acids are absorbed in the upper part of the intestines. 80% of propionic acid is absorbed by the crop. That's not all bad in that you get prophylactic antimicrobial benefits and the propionic acid that is absorbed is converted to glucose, providing free energy which is beneficial to animals convalescing from any disease process.

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June 11, 2018
Our understanding is that the salt from the Propionic acid the diformate of sodium keeps the acidity beyond the crop in the digestive system, instead the propionic acid wont last its effect of lowering the PH beyond the crop.
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Joshua Jendza Joshua Jendza
Animal Nutritionist
June 11, 2018
Enrique Alfonso Valverde Díaz De León
Sodium Diformate does not extend the acidification past the proventriculus. There is too much buffering in the Duodenum.

However, in the acidic foregut and in acidic micro-environments like at the brush border membrane, formate HCOO- can pick up H+ to become HCOOH again. Once that happens, it becomes non-polar and can be absorbed across microbial cell membranes without need for a transporter. Once in the cytosol, the HCOOH can dissociate again into HCOO- and H+, thus acidifying the cytosol and stressing the microbe.

The same basic process works for any organic acid in the gut. It's just that formic acid is more potent for bacterial inhibition.
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June 25, 2018
Thank sir for sharing valuable information.
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June 12, 2018
We are currently marketing two different formulation for control of salmonella.

1) Raafres - formulation of organic acids with MOS, B-Glucan with sustained release technology. It acidifies GI tract crop to cloaca, litter is also acidified. Sustained release technology of organic acids acidifies entire GI tract keep in check not only salmonella but e-coli also.

2) Vireck Total - for drinking water of poultry controls e-coli and salmonella in drinking water at dilution 1:800

We suggest water and feed treatment usage simultaneously for complete control of Salmonella and E-coli.
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DR SUSHANTTH  RAI, BELLIPADY DR SUSHANTTH RAI, BELLIPADY
Doctor of veterinary medicine
June 14, 2018

Yes, we at our breeder farm have ozonized the drinking water, hence the bacterial load has reduced.

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June 14, 2018

The ozone was once tried in one of the biggest farms here; it had either no effect with low concentration or caused internal bleeding in broilers when the concentration was raised.

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June 19, 2018
metin öngül we are implementing Ozonation of water as a substitute for any chemical usage in waterBy Ozonation of water we are achieving Zero bacteria water and highly oxigenated water.
DO(dissolved oxygen) in drinking water will be substantially increasing.
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June 14, 2018

Dear all, at first, low pH in watering system is reasonable because it prevents biofilm formation. At second, Salmonella is quite sensitive to low pH (independently on acid type). At third, both sodium diformate and potassium diformate also effective against Salmonella using cell membrane penetration. And finally, very important is to make inconvenient environment for Salmonella: feed enzymes destroying food substrates for Salmonella, probiotics make the same plus producing anti-Salmonella bacteriocins. And proper laboratory control to prevent possible feed bacterial pollution. And don't forget about complete poultry farm disinfection, of course!

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Ayoola Abiodun Ayoola Abiodun
Student
June 15, 2018

Water treatment in poultry is very important because this will greatly reduce the microbial loads but it is not enough to prevent the emergence or the occurrence of Salmonella. Regular biosecurity and a complete or continuous poultry house disinfection will be effective.

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June 16, 2018

What is the commercial name for the best drug to treat Salmonella in pullets?

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Shah Alam Shah Alam
Sales manager
June 19, 2018
Product Name : Salstop
Company : Impextraco
Country of origin : Belgium
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Jonathan mpande Jonathan mpande
Poultry farmer
June 17, 2018

Instead of adding more expenses on value addition on water quality, which other group will oppose to more especially those that believe in organic foods, why not coming up with transgenically grain-based enzymes as additional to feed additives?

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June 17, 2018

Dear All!

Nice comments on water acidification. However, none of the participants suggested the final water pH, after acid treatment, that will be effective. Can we discuss a little about the value that we should expect?

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June 18, 2018
Sir
It may be around 6. Its a ideal pH to get control of everything.. But the TDS of water is a major concern when we do acidification of water..every 5 mile of earth has different water source and different ph and TDS pattern..its a very complex subject and only on farm results can be considered as its practical applicability. Secondly which type.feed ingredients and feed supplements are been used are also of great concirn..balancing of pH of Water and gut is as difficult as to balance ourselve on hanging rope..Acid and alkaline balance is somewhat more concirn subject rather than only acidification of water..
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June 19, 2018
Dr. Atul Deshmukh
Even with high TDS in water we can achieve Zero Bacteria in water without altering the Phone, TDS and hardness of water.

We have seen the best results in Breeders,Layers,and Commercial Broilers
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Joshua Jendza Joshua Jendza
Animal Nutritionist
June 21, 2018
Antônio Mário Penz Junior

It depends on what you want to achieve with your water acidification.

1. Activation of chlorine requires a pH below 6.5. Above that the chlorine will be only marginally effective.

2. Between 6.5 and 5 is generally targeted if you are wanting to increase water intake and get some minor inhibition of microbes. This is what most manufacturers of propionic acid based blends recommend as it somewhere in this range that the products are the most economical. It is also good for removal of most biofilms

3. pH of 3.5 to 4.0 is what we recommend for strong microbial inhibition and elimination of all biofilms. This is the pH at which most bacteria of concern can no longer grow or even survive. However, very few commercial products can achieve a pH like this at any level, never mind economically. For that you generally need a product based on formic acid. This is because most other organic acids have a pKa that is too high to make achieving a final pH of 4 or less impossible. Formic has a pKa of 3.7, which means even at 4.0, we are still not yet to the inflection point that the pKa represents.

I've previously written about this at length. You can find the article here:
https://amasilna.com/demystification-organic-acid-blends/
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June 18, 2018
I totaly agree! Water with more than 1000 ppm of TDS can require an amount of acid not practical to adjust the pH. But, as it was said, each case requires analisys of samples of water from the same source in different conditions of the year.
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Dr. abdur rahim azad Dr. abdur rahim azad
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
June 22, 2018
Antônio Mário Penz Junior sir can you say me what's meaning of TDS?
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Shah Alam Shah Alam
Sales manager
June 19, 2018
Dear all
I think,only poultry water treatment is not sufficient to control Salmonella. we have to feed treatment with organic acid.
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June 19, 2018
Chlorine is effective for PH but sometimes we check the bacterial load in water then is not effective why?
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June 19, 2018
Jodh singh

The Zero bacterial load in water can be achieved by Ozonation without the use of chemicals
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Joshua Jendza Joshua Jendza
Animal Nutritionist
June 21, 2018
Jodh singh I would guess that the pH of your water is too high.

Chlorine addition to alkaline water will result in most of the chlorine activity being used to reduce the pH, and not to inhibiting bacterial growth. However, pre-acidification of the water to 6.5 or less will preserve the chlorine for microbial inhibition.

The effect of chlorine on microbial growth is not about acidification of the water.
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June 27, 2018
Yes sir here what’re ph is 9 to 10.
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June 19, 2018
Dear All
Birds digestive tract has different pH at different part..so calculation of potency of Organic acid at different site is debatable topic. Butyric, formic, propionic, acetic, citric, lactic etc are used in many combinations..but the PkA value of these acids and coating with special coated material to dissociate at different level and ph of intestin is also to be considered while doing the research and treatment.. These factors are of great concirn..so quality of material, its potency, and stability is to be considered while manufacturing the same..
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Joshua Jendza Joshua Jendza
Animal Nutritionist
June 21, 2018
Dr. Atul Deshmukh

There really are only 3 main pH ranges of interest in birds.

1. The crop, which has a pH more or less determined by the pH of the feed and water. Generally alkaline, but with a fair amount of room for direct influence by feed and water additives as the bird does not attempt to regulate the pH here to any great extent.

2. The proventriculus/gizzard, which has a very low pH (2-4) due to the production of HCl in the proventriculus. Very little data exists to support the ability of any acidifier to alter the pH here in a consistent way.

3. The essentially neutral environment (6.5-7.5) of the SI and LI. In the early SI there is a lot of direct control of pH by the bird through pancreatic and bile secretions. Later on the controls are a little less lax and more likely to be influenced by the microbes and any controlled release additives.

Most organic acids will be more-or-less completely dissociated (ROO- + H+) in environments 1 and 3, and completely associated (ROOH) in environment 2. There is a lot of talk about the value of having a range of pKa's present, but the chemistry of digestion suggests otherwise. These intermediate pKa's would only be of value if there were environments with natural pH ranges around these pKa's, which is simply not the case in the gut.

Molar density (Molecules per unit of weight) becomes much more important for bacterial control as this is what determines the amount of H+ that can be released in environments 1 and 3, and the amount of associated acid that can push its way into microbes to acidify the cytosol in environment 2.
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June 19, 2018

The best results can be achieved through using combination of O-gano oil and acidifiers throughout the life period of Broiler and at certain intervals in Breeder and Layers..it will definitely give promising results. Practically eliminated the use of Antibiotics or definitely reduce the use of them in feed or water. Secondly, this combination can enhance the intestinal integrity and fight against the subclinical coccidiosis also.

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June 19, 2018
Hello,
Control of insect vectors is another critical step in reducing the risk of Salmonella Enteritidis on poultry farms. Salmonella Enteritidis has been isolated from flies in contaminated laying hen houses [29, 30]. External surfaces of house flies (Musca domestica) residing in a Salmonella Enteritidis-positive environment can rapidly become contaminated, and Salmonella Enteritidis can be routinely isolated from fly guts. Chickens ingesting contaminated flies can become infected [31]. Darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus), also called lesser mealworms or litter beetles, are commonly found in poultry facilities and often are present in large numbers [32]. Darkling beetles can shed Salmonella via defecation for up to 12 d and can persist in these insects through their metamorphosis [33]. Litter beetle larvae and adults ingested by chickens can efficiently transmit Salmonella Enteritidis.
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July 18, 2018

Fernando Amairtharaj Dear Mr. Fernando, absolutely agree with you! There are some special products (from Bayer AG) in the market, based on insecticides and muscarol, flies attractant. Attracted flies killed by insecticide. There is not necessary to spray product inside the poultry house.

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Slausgalvis Virginijus Slausgalvis Virginijus
Veterinary Doctor
June 21, 2018
Sodium di...formate . how its possible by essential law of chemistry that monovalent Na and formic reacts to di.... it makes me confused
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Joshua Jendza Joshua Jendza
Animal Nutritionist
June 21, 2018
Slausgalvis Virginijus

In Na-diformate there is an equimolar concentration of the formate salt and the free formic acid. [HCOOH] = [HCOO-Na] on a molar basis. On a weight basis, the Na-salt is higher due to the mass of the Na.

The Na is covalently bound to the formate in HCOO-Na (strong molecular bond), whereas the H of the hydroxyl group of the formic acid forms a hydrogen bond to the double bonded oxygen of the Na-formate. This hydrogen bond only persists as long as the acid is free from moisture. Once water is added, the hydrogen bond is broken, which is why diformates (K-diformate is also available) tend to have shorter shelf life. Their hygroscopicity can - under the right conditions - absorb moisture from the air, freeing the formic acid bound by hydrogen bonds to evaporate.
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Slausgalvis Virginijus Slausgalvis Virginijus
Veterinary Doctor
June 21, 2018
Joshua Jendza thank you for explanation. br
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