Discussion created on 10/26/2018

Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine

Dear my colleagues I would be grateful if somebody tell me-
1- the advantage of mycoplasma gallisepticum ts-11 vaccine
2- its limitations
3-duration of immunity and when to count it from start of injection , onset of immunity or when the vaccine reach its peak
regard

Anonymous query
Saudi Arabia
Biologist
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Sachin Patil Sachin Patil
Veterinary Doctor
October 27, 2018

Dear Sir,
Herewith I am mentioning all the advantages and disadvantages of the MG/MS vaccination in poultry and points to remembering before vaccination, please have a look-
Control by vaccines
1. Killed/Inactivated vaccines
- These are M. gallisepticum killed organisms with oil emulsion adjuvants to protect the birds from infection with virulent M. gallisepticum .
- Several adjuvant enhanced bacterin vaccines but they are expensive and administration is difficult because they need to be injected twice with a 4-6 week interval (Ley, 2003).
- Killed vaccines have been shown to reduce, but not eliminate the M. gallisepticum infection and are not effective in long term control of infection in multiple age farms.
- Killed vaccination did not reduce horizontal spread of M. gallisepticum (Levisohn et. al.,2000).
- These are more stable and safer than live vaccine.



2. Live/Attenuated vaccine
- There is three type of live vaccines is available for M. gallisepticum viz.
- Connecticut F-Strain
- MG 6/85 strain
- TS-11 strain (Temperature sensitive mutants)
A. Connecticut F-strain
- Live F-strain M. gallisepticum vaccine is a relatively mild strain that originate from the Connecticut F strain of United States. Despite the advantages of the f-strain vaccine, it has many of the disadvantages of the inactivated vaccines.
- MG free chickens tend to lay better than F-strain immunised ones.
- F-strain is too virulent for young chicks.
- F-strain is capable of lateral spread in the flock.
- F-strain does not completely block transovarial transmission when birds are challenged with virulent MG.
B. MG 6/85 strain
- The 6/85 strain of MG is in lyophilised form and originate from United States.
- It has low virulence in chicken.
- Vaccinates were protected against airsacculitis and colonisation of the trachea was detectable from 4 to 8 weeks after vaccination (Ley, et. al., 1997).
C. ts-11 strain
- ts-11 is a live chemically induced mutant strain of MG is in frozen form and developed from Australian MG field isolate (Whithear et. al.,1990a).



Point to be remembering prior to Vaccination of flock
- Vaccination must be done in only MG free breeder flocks by taking consideration vertical transmission MG from parent stock to offspring.
- Before vaccination flock should be tested by DNA based molecular diagnostic tool viz. PCR instead of antigen-antibody based assay for the accurate diagnosis.
- MG 6/85 strain and ts-11 strain are live vaccine so there is more concern of safety because they may have potential for infecting unvaccinated flocks.
- The circulating field strain and vaccine strain should be same for efficacy of vaccination because of antigenic shift and phenotypic switching of MG.
- Control of MG infection by vaccination is limited as onlya few vaccines are available.
- Secondary mutation can cause a reversion to virulence
Regards,
Dr Sachin Patil
M.V.Sc (Animal Biotechnology)
National Technical Manager
Huvepharma India

Reply
Eric Gingerich Eric Gingerich
Veterinary Doctor
October 27, 2018

Sachin Patil The F-vax in the United States has changed over the years and now is very non-reactive compared to the past. in 2000, 1/4 of a dose of F-vax by water or spray would result in respiratory signs and 100% seroconversion. In 2010, a full dose of F-vax by spray produced no respiratory reaction and 30 to 40% positive seroconversion. Our producers now have gone to the eyedrop method of application of F-vax for 100% seroconversion. There is not detrimental effects on production from the use of F-vax and it appears to prevent field strain colonization well.

Reply
Eric Gingerich Eric Gingerich
Veterinary Doctor
October 27, 2018
Here is my assessment of the use of live Ts-11 vaccine in commercial layers:

- The vaccine must be applied by eyedrop usually at 8 to 14 weeks of age.
- It is delivered frozen so the cold chain must be maintained during shipment and storage at the destination before reconstitution for application.
- The vaccine colonizes the upper trachea (in the cooler areas of the trachea) so the amount of respiratory tissues exposed to mycoplasma colonization and immunity build up is limited.
- I have not seen good studies on the length of time of colonization of Ts-11 nor of the longevity of immunity. My impression is that it is not as long as F-vax or bacterin.
- The effectiveness of the vaccine depends on the match of the field strain to the vaccine strain, use of antibiotics that may inhibit the amount and time of colonization of Ts-11, and the quality of application.
- Ts-11 vaccine is safe and non-reactive with no evidence of horizontal spread
- Antibody development is minimal (30 to 40% positives) so evaluation of application is not possible by serology.
-
Reply
October 27, 2018
With respect to the Mycoplasma control by vaccination there are as well mentioning live and inactivated vaccines.
Inactivated vaccines (bacterins) give only humoral immunity and help in part of the diffusion and clinical pictures to make them milder, but they do not avoid the infection of the birds or their persistence in the farms and more in farms with different ages.
with the live ones, the F strain is well mentioned, it is more reactive, it diffuses horizontally and also vertically in breeding birds. MG 6/85 is applied by aspersion and is of short persistence in the respiratory system as an indication of immunity and protection. The Ts11 is thermosensitive is eye-applied and comes frozen and can be applied between weeks 4 and up and there are even farm jobs with applications at 2 weeks of life and good persistence in the vaccinated lot.
The important thing is to vaccinate negative birds and before the field infection. But the results with vaccinations are very good, always following the recommendations of biosecurity and handling of the vaccines.
Reply
David Baquero David Baquero
Veterinary Doctor
October 27, 2018

Great question, great answers. Thank you. Control of Mg and Ms day by day is getting harder. What do you think about the use of antimycoplasmic drugs every 4 or 6 weeks? And about the new releases like Tylvalosin and Sakamycin (please excuse me if they are not right written, in Spanish is "choques antimicoplásmicos", tilvalosina y sakamicina)?
Looking forward to hearing from you.

Reply
Dr Kibiike David Dr Kibiike David
Bachlor. Veterinary Medicine
November 7, 2018

Thanks for this has come up, I have used the frozen strain and eye drop at the age of 6 weeks with a repeat at 9 weeks. However, mycoplasmosis has often times attached me. It's true it's not easy to control on a farm with multiples eggs of laying birds and that is what I have. The birds that I have not vaccinated also safer in the same way like those vaccinated however when I treat with tylosin 20% in water at a rate of 10mls per 20liters of water for 7 days. The birds get better I follow this up with biosecurity to prevent spread and this has worked out well to the extent that I can control my lock of 35,000 layers on the farm very clean without any cough.

Reply
Dr. Mohammad Akram Dr. Mohammad Akram
Consultant Microbiologist
November 7, 2018

MG infection is very common in many countries. Most of the PS & Com. flocks of Pakistan found positive in lab and also showing signs of infection in the field. Negative flocks are getting infection easily from contaminated field.
Keeping this in view, I personally feel that sue of vaccines either killed or live is useless. Tilmycosin, the latest antimycoplasma drug is giving better results to reduce the losses from Mycoplasmosis.
Dr. M. Akram, Consultant Microbiologist, Karachi, Pakistan.

Reply
November 7, 2018
Does tilmycosin clear the infection without creating carriers?
Reply
Dr. Mohammad Akram Dr. Mohammad Akram
Consultant Microbiologist
November 8, 2018
Dear Paul Wagura,
In MG positive flocks, Timycosin is reducing the clinical signs and lesions but flock remain positive on testing due to the presence of antibodies against MG in the blood. It means that Tilmycosin can not control the carriers.
Reply
November 8, 2018

Dr. Mohammad Akram

Thank you.

Reply
November 20, 2018

Paul Wagura Tilmicosin is a bacteriostatic, that means it stops only multiplication, that's why we talk more about reducing clinical signs and lesions rather than killing the Mycoplasma. There will be always carriers since Mycoplasma infects and do multiplication in organs less or poorly vascularised, and where only few antibiotics target.

Reply
December 12, 2018
Amine Mernizi thanks
Reply
Kapil Manwal Kapil Manwal
masters in animal nutrition
November 8, 2018
MG and MS is difficult to control and yes wherever there is chicken they are present
now if we do vaccine than
- difficult to get flock free from mycoplasma first in developing countries
- if flock is positive than efficacy of vaccines is doubt
- only we can do is lower the level of mycoplasma in the chicken farm
- still more reliable are chemicals
Reply
November 8, 2018
Kapil Manwal thanks
Reply
Yuvraj Panth Yuvraj Panth
B.V.Sc.& A.H.
November 8, 2018

Thank you for vaccine-related information.
I have few queries related to MG:
1) It is said that the broilers are not infected with MG, or the signs of MG infection are not seen, what do you say about it?
2) To prevent MG infection, preventive doses of Tylosin are used even in broilers, what do you comment upon this?
3) What about preventing MG in layers? Does only vaccination prevent?

Thank you.

Reply
November 9, 2018

Yuvraj Panth Broilers and layers of any age are infected by mycoplasma. Now vaccines are available but not very effective unless you maintained proper hygiene and biosecurity. Explosion of disease can be prevented using Tylosin, Tilmicosin and Tiamutin or many other compounds.

Reply
Dr. Beny Perelman Dr. Beny Perelman
DVM, Specialist in Poultry Diseases and Management, Ostrich Medicine Expert
November 9, 2018

MG is considered a serious economic threat in poultry.
All branches can become infected at any age and broilers are among the most affected as the commercial conditions and rapid growth promote the susceptibility of the birds to the MG infection and secondary E coli severe CRD complication.
Layers and breeders may suffer from a very light drop in egg production, but in breeders the MG is transmitted to the progeny.
Treatments based on Tylosin, Tilmicosin, doxacyllin etc can be of help only when the birds are treated at 1-3 days of age and then again at 14 -18 days. The program may be helpful for broilers to control severe losses due to CRD.

Reply
November 9, 2018
Dr. Beny Perelman very informative. Thanks
Reply
Yuvraj Panth Yuvraj Panth
B.V.Sc.& A.H.
November 10, 2018
Dr. Beny Perelman , thank you
Reply
November 11, 2018
Dr. Beny Perelman great , what is the drug of choice in treatment CRD
Reply
November 10, 2018

Treatment not successful whenever treat by the tylosin/timulian/doxcyclin .The problem exactly MG. Respiratory distress causing most serious in broilers during summer and winter then what will be the good treatment or correction for that? Respected dear Sir, please comment on this.

Reply
November 19, 2018
Amod Saru Magar you could have antibiotic resistant strains - we are currently collecting these by a new culture technique in Asia
Chris.morrow@bioproperties.com.au
Reply
Surinder Khanna Surinder Khanna
Consultant
November 10, 2018

Mostly mycoplasma is vertical so initial doses with tylosin on 3d to 5th day follows tilmycosin with ctc and terra mycein la inj with cefoparazone on 20 days is useful as preventive measure.

Reply
Nolito F. Cuerbo Nolito F. Cuerbo
VETERINARIAN
December 12, 2018

Surinder Khanna giving injection 1 by 1 @ 20 days of age is quiet impractical in 100k broiler population, although I respect your suggestion.

Reply
Surinder Khanna Surinder Khanna
Consultant
November 10, 2018

Mycoplasma vaccine only works if disease is not endemic in flock, if it is followed by 5 days course of Tilmycosin it proves good.

Reply
Surinder Maini Surinder Maini
General Manager -Technical
November 11, 2018

Mostly the diagnosis is wrong, if right treatment for complications be done simultaneously, vaccine results are poor due to immune suppression, good ventilation, keep litter reasonably dry, check mycotoxins in feed and use more common sense than treatment-will give good results, thinking only to treat mycoplasma you will never succeed.

Reply
Surinder Khanna Surinder Khanna
Consultant
November 12, 2018

In field E coli is more fatal than mycoplasma, so giving previous treatment at regular intervals with antimycoplasmal drugs with E coli previous is best to my experience. Azithromycein with Amoxyllin combination is better to check secondary infections.

Reply
November 20, 2018

What are causes of this disease and how should we do to prevent and control when disease are recognised with a flock?

Reply
Kasame Trakullerswilai Kasame Trakullerswilai
Bacheler of Veterinary Medicine
November 20, 2018

Use MG Live and killed vaccine in parent first for long term prevention.

Short term use drug of choice and good management plus good feed and DOC.

Reply
December 2, 2018
1st 3 days treatment tilmycosin 20mg per kg body wt.then second 25 mg per kg body wt. at day 16 to 19 days give good results.
Reply
March 20, 2019

Use of tiamutin at the age of 10-15 days gives good results.

Reply
June 15, 2019

Do you believe is ok to combine ILT vaccine with Myco F as intranasal vaccination for pullet 12 weeks old?
I read that it will be better not to combine Myco F with any other respiratory diseases vaccine specially ILT and IB, ND.
Please advise. 
Dr. Abe Dessouki.

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