Discussion created on 03/18/2015

Incessant prolapse cases

How does high crude protein levels in feed of 48 weeks laying birds leads to over 61% Mortality related issues of prolapse with all other factors such as enteric diseases, lightening and debeaking are in check?

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Niger
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
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Andrew Sivaram Andrew Sivaram
Animal Nutritionist
March 23, 2015
This problem is usually traced to weaknesses during the pullet growth and development period. The risk of a prolapse will be higher if the pullet at point-of-lay has an under-developed (small) body frame and/or excessive bodyweight due to fat deposition. The prolapse seen during the egg production period happens because the egg is having difficulty passing through the under-developed reproductive tract and this causes the hen to strain. Overweight hens will also have more fat within the tissues surrounding the vent. This causes the loss of tissue elasticity, thus the uterus and oviduct cannot retract into their normal positions after oviposition. Off course, by feeding a high crude protein layer feed to such hens, the risk of prolapse will increase dramatically as with the mortality.
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March 23, 2015
It is commonplace to add choline chloride to layers feed for remedy but it's effectiveness vary depending on other factors of temperature, age of birds & veracity
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Andrew Sivaram Andrew Sivaram
Animal Nutritionist
March 24, 2015

Once prolapse happens, it is very difficult to rectify. My suggestion is to formulate the layer diet strictly based on digestible amino acids, and so this will allow us to reduce the Crude Protein % to the bare minimum. Include more insoluble fibre in the diet. Here we usually use Wheat Middlings or Wheat Bran but Sunflower Meal is another good choice where available. A very effective herbal remedy for prolapse is the Fenugeek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) seeds. The seeds yield a strong mucilage which acts as a laxative and helps to reduce straining during the egg laying process. We obtain the seeds by using a product called Choline-H supplied by Arasol Chemicals, India at 1 kg/ton feed. Using Choline-H allows us to totally replace synthetic Choline Chloride in the feed.

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Kannan Velasamy Kannan Velasamy
Animal Nutritionist
March 24, 2015

Prolapse should not be considered as a separatedly case. if the management, feeding, environment, stocking density, lighting management are correct then the problems could be better avoided. Sudden change in protein / energy levels can cause highly negative effects as the low fiber diet can also cause deleterious effects during laying phase in the breeders if the weight management at both bird weight and feed quantity to be monitored simultaneously throughout the life otherwise prolapse will be noticed during laying phase. 

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March 26, 2015
Reformulate feed to increase fiber content. Ensure the birds are not laying down fat and de worm the layers regularly.
Make sure the pullet at point of lay are anatomically ready for production before commencing stimulation
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Doc Vet Nato Doc Vet Nato
Doctor of veterinary medicine
April 2, 2015
There are certain breeds of layers that are more susceptible to prolapse. In the Phil. I find Lohman to have higher incidence of prolapse than Dekalb. However, weight management during rearing is the more important and relevant issue for prolapse cases. Underweight pullets at 16 weeks of age ( less than 1 kg ) have more chances of developing the problem than 1.1 kg pullet. If possible segregate all small pullets and delay the sexual maturity of the normal sized pullets before light stimulation. Start light stimulation if the birds are weighing atlas 1.35 kgs
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Westland Agro Farms Westland Agro Farms
Agriculturist
April 2, 2015
Prolapse could be a vital case that can lead high mortality in poultry especially in hot region like West Africa. When the prolapse is noticed, reformulate feed, add choline chloride if you can't get choline H as mentioned above. Isolate the prolapsed ones, treat with oxytetravet by spraying on the prolapsed part and place in a pen where you can control to reduce the amount of light they receive.
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Dr.Prasad P Kulkarni Dr.Prasad P Kulkarni
M V Sc (Poultry)
April 2, 2015
Following cross-verification may help out-
1) Intensity and heat out of sunlight
2) Body weight of birds as Fat deposition at this age is a common concern and related feed balance of choline and liver condition.
3) Available phosphorus balance (even some more minerals) as it has serious impact on tone of uterus to induce expulsion of egg by smooth muscle movements.
4) Intestinal integrity to aggravate the pre existing any of above condition.
5) Pecking and beak growth of birds at this stage.
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Henrique Marcos Borochovitz Henrique Marcos Borochovitz
Veterinary Doctor
April 5, 2015
Prolaps cloacal is genetic problems.
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Andrew Sivaram Andrew Sivaram
Animal Nutritionist
April 6, 2015
By laying a solid foundation in terms of internal organ growth and body frame development during the starter and grower phases will usually prevent prolapses from happening. To achieve this, I recommend paying serious attention to the early chick nutrition. I am now adding some Soya Peptides in the diet of layer chicks from 1-35 days to allow optimal growth and development of critical organs like liver, heart, lungs and the digestive tract. Once these organs are formed correctly by the 6th week of life, you will realise that bodyweight control and fat deposition during the later rearing period becomes easier.
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April 6, 2015
Thanking to you for above topic which is very interested because we are facing a problem of prolapse among our flock which is layer breeder. The question is what is recommended quantity of saya peptide should be added per ton feed. & is 35 days are enough for adding soya peptide.
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Jacob Thomas Jacob Thomas
Production manager
April 6, 2015
Sir,
Is it layers or or is it broiler breeders. ?
What is the temperature ? Heat stroke ?
What is the breed ?
Is the information given correct ie 48 wees ?.

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Sergio Velez Sergio Velez
Animal Nutritionist
April 6, 2015
In agreement with most comments. I would strongly suggest to weigh the dead birds and compare these weight with the regular weekly body weight of the flock. You may find that dead burds are very low weight in comparison. If you can determine total or abdiminal fat of dead birds it may also be revealing. Determine also egg weight and compare to guide. Finally, prolapse is particularly damaging due to vent pecking and death. Re monitor feed intake and feed distribution. Consider intake time. On a more general basis re evaluate feed formulation sodium, salt, texture.
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Andrew Sivaram Andrew Sivaram
Animal Nutritionist
April 6, 2015
For commercial layers and layer breeders, the best is to feed the chicks a Prestarter crumbled diet for at least up to 30 days old. During this period, the internal organs and digestive system are growing and developing very quickly, therefore peptides are the right nutrients to provide as they are very quickly digested and assimilated by the body. I usually include 5% soya peptides in the diet. Brands like Hamlet Protein HP300 or Dabomb-P are good sources of soya peptides.
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Emad Elgazzar Emad Elgazzar
MASTER and PHD degree in microbiology
April 7, 2015
I agree with prof.Andrew about the importance of development of internal organs and systems of reared chicks especially from day old but the goals of rearing depending on:1-Body weight .....2-Body composition.3-sexual development.maturity...............................................................................................................................................I Also agree the view of prof.Sergio.but their are many ways to control in body weight and uniformity of the flock.thank you about this valuable discussion. .
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Dr. Pravin M. Lunagariya Dr. Pravin M. Lunagariya
Ph. D. (Animal Nutrition) & MVSc(Animal Nutrition)
April 7, 2015
Body weight and uniformity of flock will decide future. To achieve this nutrition and feeding will give you desired outcome.
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Khaliel Alrahman Abusharkh Khaliel Alrahman Abusharkh
bachelor degree
April 7, 2015
I think one point has to be chicked too is the amount of feed matching with the birds number in the pen , some time the actual number of birds is less than the number in the records , so the amount of calculated feed is higher alot than what the birds need which will lead to have fatty birds and overstimulat birds will cause prolabs.

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Juvy Lago Juvy Lago
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
April 9, 2015
i think it is also important to note aside from good nitrition, management is a big factor in acheiving good body wt and uniformity. please take note on feeding and watering space.
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Dr. ALTAF GOHAR Dr. ALTAF GOHAR
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
August 1, 2015
A prolapsed vent happens when the hen’s vent (cloaca) turns inside-out and falls outside her body. Prolapses can occur in any animal, and chickens are no exception.
It is pretty obvious when a prolapse has occurred. You will see the red flesh of the vent sticking out, and it will be clear that she has been turned inside-out from her vent.
A prolapsed oviduct or “blowout” can occur in a hen who has begun laying too early, or in a chicken who has passed an unusually large egg. Overweight hens are also at risk of having a prolapse. And some chickens are simply built such that a prolapse is more likely to occur.
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Danka Maslic-Strizak Danka Maslic-Strizak
Veterinary Doctor
August 2, 2015

I thank all those who commented on the issue prolapsed cloaca. I think that weight control during cultivation is more important and relevant issue for prolapse cases. As certain breeds of layers that are sensitive to prolapse
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