IBV Variants in the Middle East

Published on: 09/05/2016
Author/s : Dr. Husam Bakri. / Technical and Pharmacovigilance, Manager, MSD Middle East - Dubai.

Introduction Infectious bronchitis (IB) virus, first described in the 1930s (Schalk & Hawn, 1931), continues to be a major cause of disease in chickens of all ages and types in all parts of the world (Anon, 1988, 1991). Good quality vaccines have been available to control IB infections since the 1950s. However, despite their careful use, IB continues to be a major problem. One reason for this...

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Dr Abdulwahab Kammon Dr Abdulwahab Kammon
PhD (Veterinary Pathology)
September 5, 2016
Thank you Dr Husam for the interesting article. I have some questions about the results of your study:
1. Could you insure that the variant strain 4/91 detected is not the vaccine strain.
2. It seems likely that the variant strain QX is widely spread in Middle East and North Africa, therefore I think using this strain as a vaccine instead of 4/91 will give better results. From my experience although we used Nobilis IB Ma5 + 4/91, outbreaks of IB have been occurred.
3. How could we protect Layer Chickens from IB infection during production?
Best regards,
Reply
September 5, 2016
I am concerned that there is not a reference to previous work dated later than 1999. None of the recently identified IBV types has been named in the article.
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Narayan Banik Narayan Banik
M sc in tropical vet science
September 5, 2016
Dear author
Thank u very much for nice discussion about IB variety
IB varient control . I found IB varient in commercial layer in Bangladesh it is very difficult to control .I have used 1st day IB MA5+ Clone30' at 28th day same vaccine as booster at90thdays same at17th week followed by IB killed vaccine but layer produce misshapen eggs about 30% could u suggest me how we improve misshapen eggs ?
Reply
Bouayad Bouayad
DR VETERINAIRE
September 5, 2016
bonjour
le 4/91 protege contre la forme respiratoire ;renale ou genitale
il est de meme pour la QX et le MASS qu'est ce que vous penser DR HUSSAM BAKRI
Reply
September 5, 2016
Thanks for your interesting article. If you please i have some questions;
1- How did you compared and get results from 2 flocks in different times(so different situation from season, climate, management,challenges, ...).
2-I think from my reading that 4/91 is mainly related to Var1 not Var2 which is mainly prominent in Middle East.
3- In case of egg production decrease; what's the differenet tests applied to check different possible causes and also is there was any abnormalities in egg quality?
Thanks again for your article .
Reply
September 5, 2016
Thank you doctor for all your efforts and work if you please why this study not involve Egyptian market as it constitute more than 30% from the total population of the market although we here suffering from respiratory complex diseases including infectious bronchitis so this study required more investigation for Egyptian market to have more accurate results.thank you
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Husam Bakri Husam Bakri
Veterinary Doctor
September 6, 2016
Dear Dr. kammn,
First thank you for you comments .
1- from the HI titre showed that 4/91 is playing a role and PCR results. The only thing we change is we added 4/91 in their vaccination program and we asked them to increase the biosecurity issue , As you have seen results were excellent for 3 cycles .
2- Yes QX is in our area since 2006 the first case we have found. since that time we used MA5+4/91 and we could come over the problem, even now the vaccine is in the market but most of our customers like to use the Ma4+4/91 to get more protection against our subserotype as you see we do have many in our area.
As we are saying let chicken talk . This vaccination program helped them.

Thank you aging for your comments
Reply
Husam Bakri Husam Bakri
Veterinary Doctor
September 6, 2016
Dear Dr. Ashraf ,

First thank you for your message . I did not as MSD team in Egypt did this study for Egypt farmers.

Thank you again
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Husam Bakri Husam Bakri
Veterinary Doctor
September 6, 2016
Dear Dr. Sewalm ,
Thank you for your message and your questions :
1- As we have found the IB problem in different couturiers in the middle east , we have applied this vaccination program to different countries and we followed the results aspirate , every farm we did at least 2 -3 cycles to be sure that this vaccination program will help.
2- Var 2 is in our area since 17 years from my field experience many of my customers found it with out any problem the birds, even this we have done challenge study winch showed Ma5+4/91 gave good protraction against it .
3- You know i am field man customers need help ASAP ,what i do i take blood samples when the problem starts and 15 days after and i will test them according what we are expecting the problem , but i have to have the vaccination program they are using to be apple to evaluate the rests . For sure I also get some PCR samples for farther help.

Hope i could help in my reply and sorry if not

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Dr. Mohammad Akram Dr. Mohammad Akram
Consultant Microbiologist
September 6, 2016
Dear Dr. Husam Bakri,
Thanks for for this knowledgeable information on IB Variant in Middle East.
You have concentrated on use of live IB Variant vaccines. In connection to layers and breeders, what is your opinion on use of IB Variant Killed vaccine?
Regards
Dr. Mohammad Akram, (Ph.D, Microbiology)
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Husam Bakri Husam Bakri
Veterinary Doctor
September 6, 2016
Dear Richard, Thank you for your comments. I was expecting to see you in China for the WPC 2016. We have only recently started seeing these variants in our Middle East region from after 2000 which is why we conducted the research using the previous data to solve the customers problems. The results were extremely positive which is why the customers have continued to use these Protectotypes to solve their problems. If you have any updated information or thoughts, please feel free to add as I am sure our customers will benefit. Thank you very much for valid comments, Husam.
Reply
Husam Bakri Husam Bakri
Veterinary Doctor
September 6, 2016

Dear Dr. Akram:

Thank you - I totally agree to use IB multi killed in layer and breeders. As you know, the more IB serotypes, the more you get benefit. As their lives are long, we prefer to have the highest protection against IB for the full duration of their lives. That is why, besides this we are advising the customers to use live vaccines during production after the peak (every 6-8 weeks) to have good local immunity beside humoral immunity. Thank you once again, Husam

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Husam Bakri Husam Bakri
Veterinary Doctor
September 6, 2016
Bonjour ,
If you look to to my data, we were having QX problem and we could solve it using 4/91 and Ma5 . As you know, in 2003 QX appeared in Europe and QX vaccine was not available. This vaccination program helped to control the problem. In our Middle East region we continue to use this protectotype to manage the problem including QX. Thank you for your comments, Husam
Reply
Husam Bakri Husam Bakri
Veterinary Doctor
September 6, 2016
Dear Narayan,

To help you in the proper way - which IB variant did you find? And in what age?
Thank you, Husam

Reply
Sataluri Satagopa Raja Ayyangar Sataluri Satagopa Raja Ayyangar
B .Sc ( Mathematics , Physics and Chemistry ) ; P G Diploma in Environmental Studies ; P G Diploma in Industrial Pollution Management ; Industrial Chemistry ( B I E T )
September 6, 2016
Drumstick leaves used in India olden days to cure Lungs infection as aurvedic treatment .This leaf can be tried
for birds which is echofree .The results may be published for public .
Reply
Bouayad Bouayad
DR VETERINAIRE
September 6, 2016
cher dr hussam bakri
il ya que moi qui attend une reponse a ma question est ce que le 4/91 touche toutes les formes de BI respirat renale ou genitale et la meme chose pour MA et QX exemple est ce que le QX protege contre une BI genitale avant 21 jours ou meme en plein production et a un tropisme plutot genitale que renale il des atteintes renale ou j'ai trouver le QX par PCR
est ce que MSD a l'intention de produire un vaccin vivant att QX merci de me repondre
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Ahmeddin Anjum Ahmeddin Anjum
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 6, 2016
The information is based on field observations. It is not even a case control study. However, it is useful.

The injudicious or extensive use of live variant serotypes in poultry production may be of concern. We know these will protect birds but we do not know whether these can play role in giving rise to more variant serotypes?

Is 4/91 alone or in combination with standard serotypes, available in oil-based form and, if used after priming, could we avoid use of live variants in laying period?
Reply
Athangudi Venugopalan Athangudi Venugopalan
Animal Health Technologist
September 6, 2016
A.T.VENUGOPALAN,PHD/TECHNICAL CONSULTANT
1- NEPHRO PATHOGENIC IB IS WIDELY PREVALENT. PREVALANCE OF VARIANT IB IN NAMAKAL IS WELL ESTABLISHED BY SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATION OF SUMI ET AL 2012. THE ISOLATE IS 793/B. EFFECTIVE VACCINE IS 4/91.IB H120 WILL GIVE PROTECTION ONLY AGAINST RESPIRATORY FORM OF IB AND NOTHING TO DO WITH NEPHRO PATHOGENIC FORM OF IB. AS PER GOVT OF INDIA REPORT LAST INCIDANCE OF IB IN INDIA IS 1996. THERE ARE SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS OF PREVALANCE OF IB IN TAMILNADU/KERELA/KARNATAKA AND OTHER PLACES.IB VACCINE MA5 AND 4/91 IS ESSENTIAL FOR CONTROL OF VARIANT NEPHROPATHOGENIC FORM OF IB. MA5 AND 4/91 IB VACCINE IS NOT MARKETED IN INDIA ON THE PLEA THAT VARIANT IB IS NOT PREVALENT IN INDIA. THIS IS CONTRARY TO THE FACT. PREVALANCE OF IB CAN BE CONFIRMED VBY SIMPLE LAB TEST. COLLECT KIDNEY SAMPLES FROM DAY PM CASES. PREPARE 50% KIDNEY EXTRACT IN NORMAL SALINE. DO HA. SELECT KIDNEY SAMPLES WHICH ARE HA NEGATIVE. TO 1ML OF KIDNEY EXTRACT ADD 200 MICRO L OF 2%BACTO TRYPSIN. INCUBATE FOR 30 MINUTES. REPEAT HAEMO AGGLUTINATION[HA] IF HA IS POSITIVE MEANS SAMPLE IS POSITIVE FOR IB. FURTHER AFTER VACCINATION WITH MA5 AND 4/91 THERE SHOULD BE REDUCTION IN TITRE IF VACCINE IS EFFECTIVE. IF THERE IS INCREASE IN TITRE IT INDICATES IB VACCINATION FAILURE. PRESENT IB IS LIKELY TO BE QX OR D388 VARIANT. IMPORT OF IB VACCINE MA5 AND 4/91 IS URGENT AND ESSENTIAL
VENUGOPALAN
7-9-16
Reply
Dr. Mohammad Akram Dr. Mohammad Akram
Consultant Microbiologist
September 8, 2016

Ref. to my comments on IB Variant and reply of Dr. Husam Bakri, photo given by Engormix with my comments is not mine.
Pl. remove this or give my photo send yesterday.
Thanks & regards
Dr.Mohammad Akram, Consultant Microbiologist

Reply
Ahmed Sayed Hamouda Ahmed Sayed Hamouda
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 10, 2016
First of all thank you dr Hosam for your efforts ,and please take my discussion as a subject assessment ,as this study was only for gulf and Jordan and that's not the hole middle as , material and methods is very short doesn't clear type of samples and winch test had been applied on them, the results after using the protection type programming is not satisfactorily as 12.5%mortality is still high and 1.6 kg weight in 34 days is not good or otherwise you have to mention the breed, you didn't mention anything about the CFR and amount of feed consumed,also you didn't mention the results of PCR and the isolated virus belongs to vaccinal strains or not. We are using a similar and different programs In Egypt but the results till now is not always satisfactorily so I think it needs further investigation to get a satisfactory results.In my opinion the parent flocks should be vaccinated with the multi variants killed vaccine twice before and one time during production with concern to the very strict biosecurity during whole production stages and in broiler farms to avoid the viral CO infection and bacterial infection specially salmonella and mycoplasma
Best regards,
Prof Dr Ahmed Hamouda
Professor of Poultry disease Cairo University
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