Gout in Poultry

Forum: Gout in Poultry. Its Prevention and Control

Published on: 03/16/2011
Author/s : Dr.V.S.Narsapur (Bombay Veterinary College)
Introduction Gout is a metabolic disorder in which there is precipitation and accumulation of Uric acid crystals in Kidneys, Viscera, Peritoneum and Joints, resulting in mortality. In birds, Uric acid is the end product of protein and purine metabolism and is normally excreted through Kidneys. Uric acid is insoluble in water and since birds lack in enzyme Uricase, there is no further conversion o...
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Arshaq Ramzee Arshaq Ramzee
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
March 17, 2011
A good, simple paper but promoting a commercial product.
Reply
Dr. Om Pratap Singh Dr. Om Pratap Singh
M.V.Sc. in Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology
March 17, 2011

Presentation of data is good but authenticity of data is questionable because so many factors are involved in Gout of broilers in which management is one of the most important factor. Previous data with different management practice may not be a good control for data analysis (Comparison).

Reply
Dr. Ajeet Bishnoi Dr. Ajeet Bishnoi
Marketing Manager
March 17, 2011
Gout being one of the major concern to the farmer and particularly visceral gout. The obvious cause vary from genetic to infectious and managemental. But best way to cope up with the gout problem is the management and nutrition alterations. However the article is good showing elaborated overview of the problem
Reply
March 17, 2011

Regarding this paper concerning Gout, many commercial broiler farmers suffer their broilers with gout, they have not got satisfactory result from locally available anti gout medicine. This paper show good result of Goutex. I think that it will very well helpful to others commercial broiler farmers. Please carry other trials of Antigout products with comparison of Goutex.

Regards,
Dr.Suresh F. Nipane
Technical Manger
M.V.Sc. (Animal Nutrition)
Suman Hatcheries Ltd.,
Raipur (C.G)
INDIA

Reply
Anil Phadke Anil Phadke
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
March 18, 2011

Very good article about Gout in Poultry. Role of IB is very important.He was my teacher in college.No doubt about authenticity of data.

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Ganesh Kumar Dahal Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Managing Director MDH Pharmaceuticals Pvt.Ltd.
March 24, 2011
Good article with adequate data under field condition.

I appreciate the strenuous effort of Dr.Narsapur who is an eminent veterinary scientist and happy to note about good efficacy of Goutex under his authentic field study for control of Gout in poultry.

Prevalence of Gout in some specific poultry breeds and more particularly at high altitude region was key concern for poultry raiser who have now right solution to prevent & cure gout problem of poultry.

My sincere thanks to Dr.V.S.Narsapur.
Reply
March 25, 2011

gout is a major concern to farmers ,reason may be high protein levels in diet or the IB nephropathogenic virus.etc etc, the article is informative but field treatment involves use of jaggery, livertonic plus use of KCL powder. even commercial products like goutease etc have not proven its efficacy.
the best source is to have a balanced diet and good husbandry practicesincludindg a proper water consumption and good brooding conditions. commercial products do not have 100% efficacy

Reply
Dr. Rahul Hardas Dr. Rahul Hardas
Veterinary Doctor
April 14, 2011

Thanks for such an article and a new drug.
It's better to discuss etiology of the gout which arrives from the breeders as the result of infection from Infectious bronchittis (IB) (Nephrophatic). These is practical now a days the kidneys are so poor due to infection that they cannot go with the high protein diet resulting in gout which is most probably seen in 7-12 days. It can be control by supplying maize diet with concentrates or diluting starter feed with maize 50 %. The chicks can be treated with a drug name Allupurionol (Zyloric) and Probencid acid (Bencid) which is drug of choice in treatment of hyperuricemia. I have use these drug with a amazing results other thing to concentrate on the vaccination pro gramme of IB Virus and look for the strain it is vaccinated.
Thats really innovative have a new drug for gout readily implemented on the fields.
For any querry comment please........

Reply
April 27, 2011

Dear sir,

Thanks for the article on Gout.

I would like to know , how to maintain the Blood uric acid level and how we can findout the level.

Regards,
Neethiraja.A

Reply
Dr Jaydip Mulik Dr Jaydip Mulik
Master Of Veterinary Science & Master of Business Administration
April 27, 2011


https://en.engormix.com/MA-poultry-industry/health/articles/avian-gout-causes-treatment-t1246/165-p0.htm

Re: Article: Avian Gout: Causes Treatment And Prevention
09/23/2010 | Dear Doctors,

I am happy to read the article about Avian Gout.

But since my opinion you have forgotten to elaborate the Infectious Causes in the article. Please update the details with special emphasis on Infectious Bronchitis.

As nowadays poultry industry is much more integrated & every one is aware of SOP & following the same to get the better productivity so the Gout problem occurred due to Metabolic Disorders & nutritional Parameters are very rare.

In India we face the Avian Gout problem specially in Cobb Broilers & that may be related with some genetical defects which till date not resolved. In many of endemic outbreaks of Gout majority reasons will be related to IB.

On topic of treatment also what you have mentioned are all traditional drugs & that line of treatment will not work on present GOUT outbreaks seen & that will be helpfull only when the causative agents are related to Metabolic disorders or Nutritional matters.

I have tried successfully the drugs below which plays important role to control GOUT mortality.

1) Allopurinol@2 mg/Kg body weight in 24 hrs drinking water.
Mode of Action:Allopurinol is a structural isomer of hypoxanthine (a naturally occurring purine in the body) and is an enzyme inhibitor, inhibiting xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase is responsible for the successive oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine resulting in the production of uric acid. In addition to blocking uric acid production, inhibition of xanthine oxidase causes an increase in hypoxanthine and xanthine, which are converted to closely related purine ribotides adenosine and guanosine monophosphates. Increased levels of these ribotides causes feedback inhibition of amidophosphoribosyl transferase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of purine biosynthesis. Allopurinol therefore decreases both uric acid formation and purine synthesis
(Allopurinol has been marketed in the United States since 1964. Allopurinol is marketed by Prometheus in the United States as Zyloprim, while in other countries it continues to be marketed by GlaxoSmithKline. Other brand names are Allohexal, Allosig, Milurit, Alloril, Progout, and Zyloric. In South Africa, Allopurinol is marketed under the brand name Puricos. It also known as Zyrik 300 in India and Aluron in Venezuela.)

2)Probenecid:@2 mg per kg Body weight in 24 hrs drinking water.
Mode of Action:In the kidneys probenecid is filtered at the glomerulus, secreted in the proximal tubule and reabsorbed in the distal tubule.Probenecid works by interfering with the kidneys organic anion transporter (OAT), which reclaims uric acid from the urine and returns it to the plasma. If probenecid (an organic acid) is present, the OAT binds preferentially to it (instead of to uric acid), preventing re-absorption of the uric acid. Hence, the urine retains more uric acid, lowering uric acid concentration in the plasma. (This is a good example of a medical usage for competition between substrates transported across cell membranes.)

Thanks & regards,

Dr Jaydip Mulik ( M.V.Sc)

Reply
April 27, 2011
Thanks to Dr Narsapur and Thanks to Engormix to discuss the problem of the era. The gout is the main problem of broiler production in the hot climate area now and most of the producers think it is a nutritional problem only. I think we should concentrate on solving the problem of the nephropathogenic IB in the breeder before we think to treat the broiler birds. Dr Narsapur highlighted the problem and we need more ideas and practical solutions
Reply
April 27, 2011

Very nice technical Explanation of Gout in first paragraph written by Dr.Narsapur.

Reply
April 27, 2011
Thanks to everybody for their precious knowledge.I am a layer farmer in Turkey.And For a long time i have serious gout problem with my birds.There arent many drugs for solution because its not comman and known in Turkey.All i can do is using amonium clorür in feed and some organic acids in drinking water.And after your conversation i want to try alloprunol and i find here.but can anyone tell me what is the duration of using this drug and how often?Thanks to everybody
Reply
Dr Jaydip Mulik Dr Jaydip Mulik
Master Of Veterinary Science & Master of Business Administration
April 27, 2011

Dear Mr Tolga Ozel,

When ever you get the problem of gout in future, you try the Allopurinol and Probenicid both parallel for better efficacy i.e. One drug in full day water & other drug in full night water for minimum 3 days & maximum up to 5 days during the course of treatment.

Note:
This line of treatment will minimize your severity of disorder/infection but may not completely checkout the mortality if is of Viral origin. Along with this you have to check & apply filter to remove the all managemental & nutritional causes too.

Thanks & regards,

Dr. Jaydip

Reply
April 27, 2011

Although the problem of gout is mostly related with Manage mental practices but i feel we should get little more information about the role of IB in outbreaks of gout . & its precautionary measures .Because now a days it has become the most common problem .
Regarding authenticity , as Dr Narsapurpur was my teacher at Bombay Vet College question of doubt does't arise .
Sir , Kindly provide more details about IB & its Treatment
Thanks
Dr Sharad Hol
Suguna Poultry Farm Ltd
Poona

Reply
Ganesh Kumar Dahal Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Managing Director MDH Pharmaceuticals Pvt.Ltd.
April 28, 2011

High calcium diet with low phosphorous results in precipitation of calcium, sodium urate crystals. In addition excessive use of Sodium bicarbonate or excessive Sodium, low vitamin A diet, high protein diet (30%) and water deprivation due to any reason leads to concentration of uric acid and other minerals in the blood and consequently later in the kidney.

Hard water with higher metallic salts favors the condition and puts extra load on kidneys.

Moreover mycotoxins, ocharatoxins and antibiotics excreting through kidneys like sulpha drugs, Gentamycin and Nitrofurans causes’ renal damage.

Residual toxic effect due to some of the disinfectants like Phenyl, Cresol derivatives laid grounds for Gout problem in poultry.

Reply
Venkatesh Narsapur Venkatesh Narsapur
Veterinary Doctor
May 16, 2011

Comments on article on Gout:-

I thank all for offering their comments on my article on Gout. I may add further as below :-

1) It is known that gout in poultry is a multifactor disease and the causes range from faulty management, feed to infection and genetic susceptibility. In this context, the PhD research work of Dr K.B.Solanki ( Retd Professor of Pathology Bombay Veterinary College, Mumbai India ) on salt toxicity, contains some relevant observations.
a) Dr Solanki tried to experimentally induce gout in commercial broiler chicks by applying separately each of the factors --- high brooding temperature ;limited drinking water supply , high protein diet ; low Vit A in feed ; high dose of Nitro furans—but none of these produced gout in chicks. This indicated that at least two or more factors operating simultaneously cause gout. Further research in this direction is needed to isolate very important and frequent combination of causes of gout .
b) In another study, Dr Solanki observed that histological structure of kidney ( number of glomerulii per unit area ) and hence renal function capacity, differs in different breeds of commercial broiler chicks. This indicates a genetic susceptibility as co-factor in gout.

2) As regards infectious cause of gout , we have been vaccinating all batches of broiler breeders with IB and IB nephro vaccines. In couple of commercial broiler batches, IB vaccine on day old has also been tried but the gout continues. Involvement of IB and other nephropathic agents—Scepticemia , IBD , Ochratoxins should be investigated in all severe outbreaks of gout.

3) Gout was not a major problem in 1980-90s as t is now. Present day broilers are genetically different, have much higher growth rate, lower FCR and lower mortality than birds of 80s and 90s. The present day feed is also higher in crude protein
( particularly Pre-starter ), and high in calories. However broiler management in India has not caught up and we still stick on to provide space of 0.5 Sqft and even less per bird in brooding stage. Whether these developments also have made the flocks more prone for gout.?

4) Variable incidence :- In same locality farms with common source of chicks and feed, incidence of gout is not uniform. In a survey ( by me ) out of 34 batches involving a total of 1,05,990 chicks, gout was seen in 15 ( 44%) batches. In 11 of these, treatment was effective and total mortality due to gout remained restricted to around 2.%. However in the remaining four batches, treatment was refractory and mortality reached 10 to 29%.

5) Treatment and prevention :- Diuretics ( Lasix , Potassium chlorate ); anti-gout drugs ( Allupurinol ) and some propriety preparations have been used ( I have also used) but in nearly 25% out breaks, response to treatment is poor. In my use, I have found GOUTEX ( Guybro) has an edge over others and hence it is in my prescription



6) Strategy for prevention and treatment of Gout in commercial broilers:-

I have been using following strategy :-
A)
i) Stop using prestarter feed In first week, use starter + 10 to 12% additional methionine , Lysine and Vit ADECK preparation.
ii) During 0 to 3 Weeks --- provide more space, ventilation + 10% additional waterers +cool drinking water + proper brooding.
iii) Use good quality Toxin binders , Acidifiers( they reduce gout) and antioxidants in all feed.

B ) Preventive Gout treatment from 5 to 12 day age
a) 8% Jaggery water in morning only + Goutex 10ml/100 chicks /day

C ) In the event of high uncontrolled mortality due to gout:-

Feed 50% + 50% Crushed maize containg all medicine and mineral pack
+ jaggery water as above + Goutex 15ml/100 chicks per day
till mortality shows downward trend ( generally in 2 to 3 days ).


Dr V.S.Narsapur ( 14/05/2011 )

Reply
May 16, 2011

I think Dr Narsapur gave thorough description of gout and he put us in a widening circle. When we try to catch the head of the thread, we find too many heads.

As a conclusion, GOUT IS NOT A SIMPLE PROBLEM.

Reply
Dr Jaydip Mulik Dr Jaydip Mulik
Master Of Veterinary Science & Master of Business Administration
May 17, 2011

Dear Sir,

I am totally agree with your observations & updates. Since last 3 -4 months i am also analyzing the data related to GOUT & yet i have gone through more than 6 lakh chicks affected with GOUT complexity. Except few observations all are matching with your case study & those are as

1) As per my observations the chicks placed from same breeder flock in different localities have much more difference and it was observed that the Farms where HARDNESS of drinking water is more, the mortality of gout was alarming.
2) No any remedy available in the market that can completely stop the mortality due to gout but drugs like allupurinol & probenecid will help us lot to reduce the severity.
3) Vaccination of birds with nephropathic IB vaccine probably works for first time in that area. However, what makes infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) a formidable challenge is its unstable nature. It has a natural tendency towards genetic mutation. This has led to generation of new strains (serotypes) against which the present
vaccines may be only partially effective. This is because of'antigenic variation'.
4) Its challenge for the researchers to find out the permanent remedy in Breeders only to avoid the commercial losses at farm level.
5) As every integrator now knows the managemental SOP and nutritional aspects related to such problems so that doesn't co-relate much with the present outbreaks of GOUT.

I am again thankful to Dr Narsapur for such a wonderful discussion forum on GOUT.

Regards,

Dr. Jaydip

Reply
Ganesh Kumar Dahal Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Managing Director MDH Pharmaceuticals Pvt.Ltd.
May 17, 2011

Prevention of damage from GOUT is possible if caught symptoms early enough. GOUTEX can reverse the condition at the earliest stopping the damage, although the kidney cells (tubules-nephrons) actually do not regenerate, that the remaining proximal tubules & distal tubules become larger and are able to do the job.

My sincere thanks to the author of this article Dr.V.S.Narsapur for enlightening us more about GOUT problem in poultry by supplement comments.

Poultry entrepreneurs will be benefited by this discussion for preventing GOUT problem.

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