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Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in poultry

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July 28, 2021
Yes we want to know more about Haemorrhagic Entritis and Fatty liver syndrome . Thanks
Reply
August 16, 2021
FLHS is a condition that commonly affects high-producing flocks during hot weather, especially obese commercial layer-type chickens on a high fatty diet. It is common in birds managed in cage systems where physical exercise is limited. It results due to the accumulation of excessive fat in the abdominal cavity. This leads to the liver being softened and oily/fatty that easily ruptures leading to haemorrhages.
Causes include 1. Consumption of high-energy diets, a restricted activity that results in excessive fat deposition in the liver.
1. Genetic predisposition is a factor.
2. Deficiency of lipotropic agents necessary for mobilization of fat from the liver.
3. Aflatoxin in laying hen diets has been shown to increase fat content up to 20% and plays a significant role.
FLHS and caged layer fatigue may occur simultaneously.
Signs:
Outbreaks are often associated with a sudden drop in egg production up to 45-55%. The flock is averagely obese 25-30% above normal. Some birds may have pale combs and wattles covered with flaking epidermis. Mortality increases moderately with occasional hens in full production dying suddenly and unexpectedly. Often hens are found dead with pale heads. Mortality is low and may not exceed 5%.
Reply
Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó
Operations Director
PlusVet Animal Health PlusVet Animal Health
Qingdao, Shandong [Shantung], China
August 16, 2021
Musa Ibrahim Waziri Short but complete explanation!
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December 4, 2021
Dear Musa Ibrahim Waziri,
Can you tell me the normal fat percentage in layer? How we can manage this common and adverse this situation managerially? How we can maintain the uniformity of the flock?
Reply
September 14, 2021

FLHS is mostly due to excessive consumption of energy. seen mostly in overweight hens with lot of abdominal fat. mostly seen in the later part of the production cycle ie after 45weeks.
FLHS can be stopped by reducing the feed by 5 to 10gms per day from the current feed in breeders fed on controlled quantity. no need to change the feed formula.
FLHS cases in a flock indicates excess feeding. better we do quantitative restriction of intake. generally production is not affected. increase the level of choline chloride in feed and checking on toxins will help.
Rare in full fed layers. if we come across the problem in brown layers which tend to over consume feed,
better we reduce the M.E by 100k.cal per ton.
We generally achieve this by replacing corn with deoiled rice polish or wheat bran to an extent of 100kg per ton of feed. this reduces the feed cost.

Reply
Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó
Operations Director
PlusVet Animal Health PlusVet Animal Health
Qingdao, Shandong [Shantung], China
September 15, 2021
Dr Kotaiah Talapaneni Very valuable and practical contribution, thanks!
Reply
Dr.m.s.swami Dr.m.s.swami
Businessman
September 15, 2021
Thank you for the informative and the most useful information.
Regards
Dr M S Swami
Reply
November 22, 2021

Thank you for the informative and the most useful information.

Apart from preventing aflatoxin-like factors that will tire the liver; it is good if the dietary Energy/Protein level is controlled. By keeping the dietary energy value constant, using fat instead of carbohydrates, we contribute to the fact that the liver synthesizes less fat for the yolk. It will also be useful to diversify carbohydrate sources, for example, Along with corn, it will be useful to use Wheat and Barley. Supplementation with Choline and Betaine will also be useful.
Murat Bayar

Reply
Tahir Naseem Tahir Naseem
M Phil Pathology
November 23, 2021
May all of you live in peace and enjoy all the blessings of ALLAH.

FLHS is generally caused by the use of high energy and or low protein diet. This high energy is actually high energy than required maintenance energy of a specific body weight range on a given temperature.
It can be due to following reasons:

1-High carbohydrate content in feed

2- Temperature fluctuation. As maintenance part of feed intake is decreased by 1- 2% on every °C increase in temperature. Therefore it's incidence is increased during heat stress or temperature fluctuation.

3-Incorrect counting of birds/cage. As feed is calculated on the basis of no of birds, so lack of uniform no of birds/cage may decrease or increase the amount of feed/bird. Hence increasing or decreasing the amount of energy administered to the birds.

4- Use of rancid oil may also enhance FLHS.

5- Aflatoxicosis may produce FLHS like lesions in liver, but on histopathology, you can not see the fat vacuoles between hepatocytes. So actually it is not true FLHS. But you may call it Hemorrhagic Liver Syndrome.
6- During FLHS you may often notice Secondary infection of Salmonellosis.

Therefore Following measures are suggested
to prevent or decrease incidence of FLHS:

1- Always use calculated feed/ bird.( According to Body weight, Egg size, Egg production and environmental temperature).
2- Always use feed bearing energy and protein
label.
3-Avoid temperature fluctuations and heat stress.
4- Use of saturated Fats or Antioxidant enriched good quality unsaturated fats in feed, with normal range of FFA, instead of carbohydrates.

5- Use of additional amount of Fat emulsifiers and lipotropic factors like, Choline chloride, betain and Vitamin B complex in the feed.

6-Use of good quality antioxidants and Vitamin K regularly in feed and/or drinking water.

7- Use of toxin binders, effective against both
polar and non polar mycotoxins.

8- Increase protein in feed by 1-2%.

9- Regular use of mould inhibitors and mannan oligosacharides in the feed.

Regards.
Reply
Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó
Operations Director
PlusVet Animal Health PlusVet Animal Health
Qingdao, Shandong [Shantung], China
November 25, 2021
Tahir Naseem Thanks for your comment! Indeed, we find that bad fat quality is often overlooked.
Reply
December 4, 2021
Dear Tahir Naseem,
Sir, these are great contributions from you. Sir is stocking density affect the uniformity of birds? Sir during harsh environments especially in May, June, and July how we can manage heat stress? How do we use Fat emulsifiers and lipotropic factors and what is their composition?
Reply
Dr. Shahid Zahoor Dr. Shahid Zahoor
DVM,MPhil,PhD(scholar)
December 14, 2021
Sir Tahir Naseem..yes sir you are right.
I treat a case with low energy and high protein as compare to previous formulation..
Restriction feeding
95/bird uniform distribution
Stop oil in feed(fat)
Try to make uniform temperature day and night with little fluctuation..
Reply
Muzzamal ijaz Muzzamal ijaz
Msc.(Hons.) Animal Nutrition
November 25, 2021

Hi,
Normally the situation occurs during heat stress along with higher and continuous supply of Toxins in the feed.
Secondly, we can reduce the problem by altering the source of energy from carbohydrates to fat metabolism as we do in keto diet methods!!
Use of good quality materials as well monitors the Toxins levels in the feed, if there is any sign or indication then include good quality toxin binders will be helpful!

Reply
December 1, 2021
The name needs needs to be changed to Fatty-hemorrhagic liver syndrome.
Reply
Muhammad Salman Akram Muhammad Salman Akram
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
December 10, 2021
Toxicity in the diet damage the liver. Must use phytogenic Toxin binder to control the toxicity and liver damage. Same time heat stress will also be control.
Reply
December 12, 2021
Good information shared. Thanks.
Reply
December 29, 2021

The constant inclusion of toxic binders in poultry feed production is essential because it takes all aspects of foreign contaminants & thereby controls its effect in harming the birds.



Reply
Dr.m.s.swami Dr.m.s.swami
Businessman
January 3, 2022
Sir I am very much eager to know about the detail action of toxin binders and toxin eliminators , that too in the severe cases of FLHS in broiler breeders at the stage of peak production.
I hope you will help us.
Warm Regards
Seasons greetings for all.
Reply
Muhammad Salman Akram Muhammad Salman Akram
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
January 5, 2022
Dr.m.s.swami Yes of course
Reply
Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó
Operations Director
PlusVet Animal Health PlusVet Animal Health
Qingdao, Shandong [Shantung], China
January 5, 2022

Dr.m.s.swami Dear Doctor, firstly it is necessary to study the mycotoxin contamination of the feed, specially aflatoxins and ochratoxins because there may be other causes for the severe FLHS, such as feed composition or heat stress.

If these mycotoxins are above the recommended levels for breeders, then it is necessary to discontinue the administration of contaminated feeds, add a good mycotoxin binder to cleaner feeds, and administer nutrients that help liver regeneration, such as selenium, zinc, vitamin E and some essential oils. We include these nutrients in our product PhytoMax.

Reply
Dr.m.s.swami Dr.m.s.swami
Businessman
January 9, 2022
Thank you so much for the guidance extended by you through your post. I am grateful to you.
Warm Regards.
New year wishes for you,family and friends.
Reply
Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó
Operations Director
PlusVet Animal Health PlusVet Animal Health
Qingdao, Shandong [Shantung], China
January 10, 2022
Dr.m.s.swami Many thanks for your kind words! Best wishes for you and for loved ones!!!
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