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Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in poultry

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July 28, 2021
Yes we want to know more about Haemorrhagic Entritis and Fatty liver syndrome . Thanks
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August 16, 2021
FLHS is a condition that commonly affects high-producing flocks during hot weather, especially obese commercial layer-type chickens on a high fatty diet. It is common in birds managed in cage systems where physical exercise is limited. It results due to the accumulation of excessive fat in the abdominal cavity. This leads to the liver being softened and oily/fatty that easily ruptures leading to haemorrhages.
Causes include 1. Consumption of high-energy diets, a restricted activity that results in excessive fat deposition in the liver.
1. Genetic predisposition is a factor.
2. Deficiency of lipotropic agents necessary for mobilization of fat from the liver.
3. Aflatoxin in laying hen diets has been shown to increase fat content up to 20% and plays a significant role.
FLHS and caged layer fatigue may occur simultaneously.
Signs:
Outbreaks are often associated with a sudden drop in egg production up to 45-55%. The flock is averagely obese 25-30% above normal. Some birds may have pale combs and wattles covered with flaking epidermis. Mortality increases moderately with occasional hens in full production dying suddenly and unexpectedly. Often hens are found dead with pale heads. Mortality is low and may not exceed 5%.
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Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó
Operations Director
PlusVet Animal Health PlusVet Animal Health
Qingdao, Shandong [Shantung], China
August 16, 2021
Musa Ibrahim Waziri Short but complete explanation!
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September 14, 2021

FLHS is mostly due to excessive consumption of energy. seen mostly in overweight hens with lot of abdominal fat. mostly seen in the later part of the production cycle ie after 45weeks.
FLHS can be stopped by reducing the feed by 5 to 10gms per day from the current feed in breeders fed on controlled quantity. no need to change the feed formula.
FLHS cases in a flock indicates excess feeding. better we do quantitative restriction of intake. generally production is not affected. increase the level of choline chloride in feed and checking on toxins will help.
Rare in full fed layers. if we come across the problem in brown layers which tend to over consume feed,
better we reduce the M.E by 100k.cal per ton.
We generally achieve this by replacing corn with deoiled rice polish or wheat bran to an extent of 100kg per ton of feed. this reduces the feed cost.

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Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó
Operations Director
PlusVet Animal Health PlusVet Animal Health
Qingdao, Shandong [Shantung], China
September 15, 2021
Dr Kotaiah Talapaneni Very valuable and practical contribution, thanks!
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Dr.m.s.swami Dr.m.s.swami
Businessman
September 15, 2021
Thank you for the informative and the most useful information.
Regards
Dr M S Swami
Reply
November 22, 2021

Thank you for the informative and the most useful information.

Apart from preventing aflatoxin-like factors that will tire the liver; it is good if the dietary Energy/Protein level is controlled. By keeping the dietary energy value constant, using fat instead of carbohydrates, we contribute to the fact that the liver synthesizes less fat for the yolk. It will also be useful to diversify carbohydrate sources, for example, Along with corn, it will be useful to use Wheat and Barley. Supplementation with Choline and Betaine will also be useful.
Murat Bayar

Reply
Tahir Naseem Tahir Naseem
M Phil Pathology
November 23, 2021
May all of you live in peace and enjoy all the blessings of ALLAH.

FLHS is generally caused by the use of high energy and or low protein diet. This high energy is actually high energy than required maintenance energy of a specific body weight range on a given temperature.
It can be due to following reasons:

1-High carbohydrate content in feed

2- Temperature fluctuation. As maintenance part of feed intake is decreased by 1- 2% on every °C increase in temperature. Therefore it's incidence is increased during heat stress or temperature fluctuation.

3-Incorrect counting of birds/cage. As feed is calculated on the basis of no of birds, so lack of uniform no of birds/cage may decrease or increase the amount of feed/bird. Hence increasing or decreasing the amount of energy administered to the birds.

4- Use of rancid oil may also enhance FLHS.

5- Aflatoxicosis may produce FLHS like lesions in liver, but on histopathology, you can not see the fat vacuoles between hepatocytes. So actually it is not true FLHS. But you may call it Hemorrhagic Liver Syndrome.
6- During FLHS you may often notice Secondary infection of Salmonellosis.

Therefore Following measures are suggested
to prevent or decrease incidence of FLHS:

1- Always use calculated feed/ bird.( According to Body weight, Egg size, Egg production and environmental temperature).
2- Always use feed bearing energy and protein
label.
3-Avoid temperature fluctuations and heat stress.
4- Use of saturated Fats or Antioxidant enriched good quality unsaturated fats in feed, with normal range of FFA, instead of carbohydrates.

5- Use of additional amount of Fat emulsifiers and lipotropic factors like, Choline chloride, betain and Vitamin B complex in the feed.

6-Use of good quality antioxidants and Vitamin K regularly in feed and/or drinking water.

7- Use of toxin binders, effective against both
polar and non polar mycotoxins.

8- Increase protein in feed by 1-2%.

9- Regular use of mould inhibitors and mannan oligosacharides in the feed.

Regards.
Reply
Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó Teresa M. Agulles Teixidó
Operations Director
PlusVet Animal Health PlusVet Animal Health
Qingdao, Shandong [Shantung], China
November 25, 2021
Tahir Naseem Thanks for your comment! Indeed, we find that bad fat quality is often overlooked.
Reply
Muzzamal ijaz Muzzamal ijaz
Msc.(Hons.) Animal Nutrition
November 25, 2021

Hi,
Normally the situation occurs during heat stress along with higher and continuous supply of Toxins in the feed.
Secondly, we can reduce the problem by altering the source of energy from carbohydrates to fat metabolism as we do in keto diet methods!!
Use of good quality materials as well monitors the Toxins levels in the feed, if there is any sign or indication then include good quality toxin binders will be helpful!

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