Economics of Low Protein Broiler Diets: A Formulation Exercise

Published on: 03/01/2021
Author/s : R.A. SWICK 1 and D.C. CRESWELL 2. / 1 University of New England, Armidale NSW, Australia; 2 Creswell Nutrition, Mosman NSW, Australia.

I. INTRODUCTION Papers have been presented at the past two APSS meetings on the subject of low protein diets (Kidd and Choct, 2017; Hilliar and Swick, 2018; Lambert and Corrent, 2018). Few, if any, have taken note of the economics of such diets. This paper is an examination of the costs of low protein diets. A brief history of amino acids is worth reviewing. Each time a limiting amino acid becam...

remove_red_eye 2095 forum 23 bar_chart Statistics share print
Influencers "Likes": Julián Melo
Share :
close
March 1, 2021
Good day,

100% correct. We have tried lower protein diets in Canada as well, but almost always, higher protein diets are more economical and the performance is better as well. And I've tried supplementing with synthetic VAI as well.

What wasn't mention in the article was the protein level in the wheat used, as that makes a huge difference in the ability to lower protein levels and/or performance. The higher protein wheat (150 g/kg) along with lower protein in the diets will make for worse results then say using a wheat that has 105 g/kg.

Thank-you for sharing your work.

Reply
May 6, 2021
George Entz,

Dear all, enzymes are specific of substrates, I strongly recommend to check the energy and amino acid value improved by phytases or NSP xilanases, take care, the effect is secundary, and because of that inconsistent, dependent, if you have low phosphorus level or NSP carbohidrates in your diet, and you have the secundary effect because of Phosphorus defficiency, amino acid digestibility values are decreased, if you are phosphorus or phytase and recover phosphorus, what you really do is to recover amino acid digestibility values, if you give a matrix on amino acids and energy when you have secundary effects what you really are doing is over estimating the value of enzimes, and I have seen several mistakes and issues on the field due to over estimation of enzymes or other additives, blaiming secundary effects
Reply
May 6, 2021
Carlos Martínez Amezcua,
Sorry there is a mistake, in my comment>
Phosphorus defficient, amino acid digestibilities values are decreased, if you add phosphorus or phytase, what you are really doing, is recovering AA digestibility, just think, what is the right sentence
1) Phosphorus Defficient diet AA dig 70/80 if add phosphorus or phytase recovers to 88/90!! or
2) PHosphorus defficient diet AA dig 88/90 % and if add phosphorus or phytase you move it to 100%??????????????,
Take care!!! second answer is what you are doing if you give matrices because secundary effects
Reply
May 6, 2021

Carlos Martínez Amezcua
Hi Carlos,
Great point you are making! If we reduce the crude protein and use more crystalline amino acids to satisfy their requirement soybean meal inclusion is decreased. There will likely be less benefit of phytase as there is less substrate (phytin) for the phytase to degrade. I don't have the full answer but I agree that the phytase matrix values will likely be affected.
Bob Swick

Reply
Dimcho Djouvinov Dimcho Djouvinov
Animal Nutritionist
March 1, 2021
Dear Bob,

Thanks for sharing this work.

Did you apply in formulations all parameters of matrix of enzymes: minerals plus energy plus AAs? And when combining phytase with NSPase, using 80% of each matrix for AME and AAs?
Reply
March 7, 2021
Dimcho Djouvinov
Hi Dimcho,
I use full matrix values for phytase being what the manufacturer recommended for energy, Ca, P, Na, amino acids for the dosage used. I do not use matrix values for xylanase. If the wheat seems to be low energy based on Evonik NIRS NRG scanning, I add 60 to100 kcal/kg to the AMEn when using xylanase. I believe the xylanase does a good job at raising the AMEn of low energy wheat and reducing the variability.
Of course what ever one does can be criticised but that is what I do.
Best regards,
Bob Swick
Reply
Haroon Mushtaq Haroon Mushtaq
PostDoc in Poultry Nutrition
March 10, 2021
Robert Swick What's your opinion on using phytase+xylanase/NSPase and considering their matrix as 1+1=1 (like we do at commercial level to avoid inconsistency of ingredients) OR 1+1=2 (seems logical on mathematical grounds) OR 1+1=3 (could be logical as more enzymes release entrapped nutrients by breaking complex NSP+phytate structure)?
Reply
Dimcho Djouvinov Dimcho Djouvinov
Animal Nutritionist
March 10, 2021
Haroon Mushtaq
Normally, if phyt+NSPase are included, 0.8+0.8=1.6 regarding energy and AAs should be applied.
Reply
March 2, 2021

Robert Swick, consistent with the report by Mr George Entz, research work that we conducted with broiler chicken, the results of which are published here at ENGORMIX, under the title: Digestible lysine levels obtained by two methods of formulation of diets for 22- to-42-day-old broilers confirm that diets with a full protein level provide better performance results for broilers.

Reply
March 7, 2021

Juarez Donzele
I tend to agree. I think there is a lot of focus on reduced protein without regard for economics and performance. And in the real world, we have challenges with Eimeria and Clostridium not to mention viruses and parasites. When there are GIT challenges, having less undigested protein reach the hindgut is advantageous as there will be less ammonia produced. Ammonia increases pH and favours the growth of Clostridia. This means it is better to formulate feed with protein that is highly digestible as opposed to poorly digested. A combination of high quality grain, soybean meal and lysine with methionine and threonine is recommended.
Bob Swick

Reply
May 26, 2021
One must have high quality ingredients for performance. Also L Value, L Arginine plus glycine to provide a nitrogen pool when using low crude protein diets
Cheap will not work
Reply
May 27, 2021
John Wills, PhDHi John!
Yes I totally agree that cheap will not work! Nothing better than intact protein from soybean meal (when sustainably produced) balanced with minor amounts of added amino acids to meet the ideal digestible amino acids requirements. All the best!
Bob
Reply
March 3, 2021
No comment by now. All what you stated was really clearly. Thanks.
Reply
March 7, 2021
Robert Swick
Although their considerations are consistent, it must be considered, that in addition to our previous considerations, that the health challenge, mentioned above, constitutes one of the factors, which can compromise the performance of the birds, when the crude protein is reduced. This is due to the fact that the health challenge increases the demand for amino acids considered as non-essential, including glutamine, glutamate and glycine, whose concentrations are reduced. Even due to this fact these amino acids are considered conditionally essential.
Reply
March 7, 2021
Great point!
Reply
March 16, 2021
A low protein diet is not of benefits because of adverse effects on health of poultry birds.
Reply
March 19, 2021
What's up in AU?
Val, Arg and Ile prices in Europe are half of these prices and for some even less than half.
Reply
March 19, 2021

Oh I see. these are AU dollars. Not so far away from Europe prices then.

Reply
May 2, 2021

The prices are a moving target. But yes that paper is AUD not Euros.
We can say that as time goes by, the purified AA sources will likely get cheaper as demand picks up and economy of scale is realised. The next thing to be considered will be sustainability.
On first thought, most will think purified sources will be more sustainable than SBM. However one needs to consider the input materials to produce purified AA sources including water, starch, sugar, nitrogen and electricity for maintaining fermentation temperature and drying the final product. Methionine is truly synthetic being made from petroleum derived chemicals methyl mercaptan, acrolein and hydrogen cyanide (and petroleum is not very sustainable).
Soybeans are grown on farms using varying degrees of sustainable practices. But they do employ rural people and put more nitrogen into the soil than they take away. The amino acids produced by soybeans use nitrogen fixed from the air. When produced in situations where they do not impact important natural habitats they are truly a highly sustainable miracle crop.

Reply
June 15, 2021

Robert Swick . Excellent comment on sustainability, however do not discount the sustainability of the chemicals used to produce the amino acids and vitamins. Many times the production of these nutrients using chemicals is an integrated operation and they used chemicals (by products) from the production of other products. Many times cyanide and HCl acid are in surplus from other reactions. To get a true value of sustainability, one must calculate the entire production processes of producing several products.

Reply
June 16, 2021
David Wicker Ph. D.Hi David, Thanks for the comments and great to hear from you!
Yes the sustainability aspects need to be worked out for sure. Getting an economic value is relatively easy compared to a sustainability value. Sustainability needs to consider things like fossil fuel consumption, climate change, eutrophication, acidification, smog formation, land use, employment and probably some others we haven't thought of yet. And then we need to distill them down into a simple index so we can use it to formulate feed. Perhaps such an index can be used as another "nutrient" in the ingredient matrix. The weighting of the components of sustainability will require some agreement between people. Anyway just some further thoughts.....
Best regards,
Bob
Reply
June 8, 2021
Yes! Anything that can reduce production cost significantly will be welcomed.
Reply
June 9, 2021
Low protein diet for broilers welcome.
Reply
1
print
(2095)
(23)
Engormix reserves the right to delete and/or modify comments. See more details
Post a comment
Create new discussion :
If this discussion does not cover topics of interest or raises new questions, you can create another discussion.
Consult a professional in private:
If you have a specific problem you can perform a consultation privately to a professional in our community.
Fred Hoerr
Fred Hoerr
DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP, ACPV
  Nashville, Tennessee, United States
 
Copyright © 1999-2021 Engormix - All Rights Reserved