Coccidiosis control in broiler breeders with the use of vaccines: part one

Published on: 10/22/2021
Author/s : Jose J. Bruzual / Senior Poultry Veterinarian and Zoltan Marton, Regional Technical Veterinarian, Aviagen.

Coccidiosis is a disease of the intestinal lining, produced by the invasion of the mucosal cells by a very prolific protozoan parasite of the genus Eimeria. This invasion results not only in the interruption of feeding and digestive processes involved in nutrient absorption but can also cause intestinal inflammation leading to dehydration, blood loss, loss of skin pigmentation, and increased susce...

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oumed gerjis oumed gerjis
Veterinary Doctor
October 22, 2021

Interesting article!

Reply
Jose J. Bruzual Jose J. Bruzual
Médico Veterinario
October 27, 2021
oumed gerjis if you have any question please let me know. Few changes in management can make a difference.
Reply
February 16, 2022
Jose J. Bruzual ,
If clical coccidiosis cases appear in a vaccinated flock with no coccidiostat in feed , do you advise medication or management changes?
What are the management tips ?
Reply
Jose J. Bruzual Jose J. Bruzual
Médico Veterinario
February 16, 2022
Dr Kotaiah, you may need to treat if you have a break, but need to look at brooding conditions besides the vaccine being applied properly
Reply
February 18, 2022
Jose J. Bruzual
Yes I have to treat. That means the vaccine did not work
Reply
Bouayad Bouayad
DR VETERINAIRE
February 20, 2022

Jose J. Bruzual, it is necessary to wait for a moment maybe it is subjects who have not been well vaccinated then after make a coprological examination on the droppings collected in the morning and make a quantitative and qualitative analysis during good vaccination we will find only one category of oocysts if, on the contrary, we will find a maximum of eimeria.

On the other hand, if the time of vaccination is long enough and the number of affected subjects increases, treat with anticoccidial drugs.

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Jose J. Bruzual Jose J. Bruzual
Médico Veterinario
February 20, 2022
Dr Kotaiah Talapaneni. many reasons why the vaccine did not work.
always check application and viability of the vaccine. but also field conditions. vaccine application can be fine but if field conditions does not work then breaks will occur. you may need to be more specific.
Reply
Jose J. Bruzual Jose J. Bruzual
Médico Veterinario
February 20, 2022

Bouayad If cocci breakage persists, first check to see if the vaccine is viable. If it is, make sure the chick density is right to increase the humidity of the litter. I like about 40 chicks per m2 for the first 7-9 days. This can vary depending on the humidity of the litter. If the second cycle occurs correctly, you will have a decent number of oocysts per gram of feces and a good immune response. very important the first 7-9 days.

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Bertrand Medina Bertrand Medina
Specialist in Animal Nutrition
February 22, 2022
Dr Kotaiah Talapaneni this is why it could be also very productive and efficient to complete some "bio-shuttle" cocci-vaccine program; i.e. to add into the feed some phytogenic (plant bio-actives) blends in order:
- to secure the efficacy of the cocci vaccine,
- to attenuate unfavorable cocci responses (due to brooding or litter management issues),
Reply
February 22, 2022
Bertrand Medina
I have already taken a chance with vaccine.
I don't want another mishap with plant based products whose mode of action and dosage is unknown.
Better I stick to known coccidiostats till I am confident of vaccine.
Reply
Bertrand Medina Bertrand Medina
Specialist in Animal Nutrition
February 23, 2022
Dr Kotaiah Talapaneni correct ! But our recommandation esa mot yo substitute any cocci vaccine but to bolster it into a specific feeding program during the first 4-5 weeks of age.
You’re right a lot of botanical blend are not supported wit science but you may find phytogenics with consistent and peer-reviewed data. Let me know if any interest to share with you some of our recent trial showing the perfect compatibility with our Synbiotec (powder for feed) or Aqua-Gut (liquid for drinking water) for securing any cocci vaccine program as bio-shuttle cocci program ! Regards
Reply
Bouayad Bouayad
DR VETERINAIRE
March 4, 2022

Jose J. Bruzual how would you know if the vaccine is live?

Reply
Jose J. Bruzual Jose J. Bruzual
Médico Veterinario
October 22, 2021
Any questions please let me know.
Reply
March 1, 2022
Jose J. Bruzual
Please send phytogens data to drkotaiah@indbropoultry.com
Reply
January 31, 2022

nice impressive topic , i used to vaccinate birds at 4 day feed topping vaccination, do you have any comparative study? Between routs of conidial vaccine administration and its efficiency

Reply
Jose J. Bruzual Jose J. Bruzual
Médico Veterinario
February 4, 2022
Just vaccinating at the hatchery and revaccinated at the farm.
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Jose J. Bruzual Jose J. Bruzual
Médico Veterinario
February 20, 2022

Arkan Lubani I did a study with revaccination at day 4 via spray in the brooding area after vaccination at day of age. so far many flocks with no coccidiosis in the field. I presented that work at AAAP 2021

Reply
February 4, 2022

Coccodiosis in broiler breeders reared on deep litter is a real challenge. The feed restriction starts after 4th week and the quantity of coccidiostat given through feed also get restricted. The outbreak if not detected immediately can kill lot of birds. Deaths can be reduced by prompt early medication.
The vaccines given for broiler breeders are live and we should not give coccidiostats in feed to the vaccinated flocks. The vaccine manufacturer recommends no coccidiostat in feed and medication with amproleum when we see the clinical cases which is relatively milder.
Here comes the question " is the vaccine really effective?". If the vaccine is effective why do we see the cases? If vaccine fails the outbreak can be serious because there is no coccidiostat in feed and we are banking on milder medicine for treatment (as per the advise of the vaccine manufacturer). The problem is more serious in males facing heavier restriction. Loss of males will lead to heavy loss on the whole flock.
Cage rearing of broiler breeders solved 95% of coccidiosis problems. We will be back to the dilemma "vaccine with no coccidiostats or higher dose of coccidiostats with restricted feeding"? Once the cages are banned and the flocks are back on deep litter.

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February 6, 2022

Infections with coccidia are often associated with severe economic losses. Currently the prevention and control of coccidiosis is based on good hygiene, chemotherapy (Coccidiostats) and immunization. Monitoring programmes are essential for the early recognition of strains developing resistance. Generally, anticoccidial drugs or vaccination alone is of little value, unless they are accompanied by improvements in all aspects of management. More attention should be given to improved sanitation and hygiene at the farm level. Including, all parameters which can improve litter quality such as: appropriate installation and management of watering systems, providing adequate feeding space, maintaining recommended stocking density and supplying adequate ventilation.

Reply
February 8, 2022
Hafez Mohamed
coccidia is a spore which lives for long time. I don't depend on my best biosecurity protocols without cocciostats and vaccine. There is end definition for biosecurity and management
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March 4, 2022

Hafez Mohamed What methods do you think are most appropriate for monitoring programmes are essential for the early recognition of strains developing resistance?

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February 7, 2022
Yes
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February 7, 2022
Coccidiosis control through coccidiostats in feed is a proven strategy.
Wanted input on experience with vaccines only without coccidiostats?
Reply
Jose J. Bruzual Jose J. Bruzual
Médico Veterinario
February 8, 2022
Dr Kotaiah Talapaneni Please contact me via email jbruzual@aviagen.com
Reply
Wijaya Saputra Wijaya Saputra
Veterinary Doctor
February 18, 2022
Good afternoon Dr. Jose J. Bruzual

The day old chicks that I raise have been vaccinated against Cocci at the hatchery. The type of vaccine used is the attenuated cocci vaccine. During the brooding, during the first 3 days the chicken bed was covered with newsprint, from day 4 the newsprint pad was removed and the chicks were in direct contact with the litter made of wood shavings as a place to play. moist and dry litter. Oocyst monitoring was carried out by checking the number of oocysts from chicken manure samples in the laboratory at the age of 14 days, 21 days, 28 days, 35 days, 8 weeks, 12 weeks, 16 weeks, 20 weeks and finally 24 weeks.
Overview of the highest number of oocysts at the age of 28 days or 35 days, at the age of 8 weeks the number of oocysts was very few 1500, and before production the number of oocysts was > 1000. if there are intestinal lesions due to coccidiosis until the age of 8 weeks I leave no treatment with antibiotics or coccidiostats. Intestinal lesions due to cocci are still visible from 9 weeks of age until around 24 weeks of production. At this time, it is very difficult for me to find chickens that die purely because of coccidiosis cases, we can only see coccidiosis lesions in weak or thin chickens if we cull then we will have surgery in post mortum. The question is if we find cases of small intestine lesions due to coccidiosis in weak chickens, what action should we take, whether giving antibiotics or coccidisotat. How many oocysts of Oocysts per Gram do we think are still considered tolerant or not dangerous for their continuation. Is there a positive correlation between coccidiosis and osteomyelitis at 9-15 weeks of age?
Please enlighten Dr. José, Thanks for the response.
Regards

Wijaya Saputra
Reply
February 21, 2022
Great discussion!
For the feeding aspects I would like to highlight that alergencics like Glicinine and Conglicinine could worst the challange to make coccidiosis vaccine effective.
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