Biosecurity, an outline

Published on: 7/13/2009
Author/s :

“A Set Of Management Practices,
Which When Followed Correctly
Reduce The Potential For The Introduction And Spread Of Disease Causing Organisms
Onto, And Between Farms”

Why “Reduced”, and Not Finished?

  • Microbes Can Be Controlled, Not Prevented
  • Microbes are more Versatile To Overcome Adversity (Quickly Adapt to New Environment)
  • Population of Microbes is Very High, and Widely Distributed
  • Microbes Multiply Rapidly
  • “Disease Occurrence Can be Minimized, Productivity Can Be Optimized”

Relationship Between
Expenditure And Return From Biosecurity

Economics of Biosecurity

Importance of Biosecurity
Highly Intensive Farming-
Birds At Stress; Lowered Immunity- Higher Susceptibility to Diseases
Highly Productive Livestock- More Prone to Diseases

Microbial Contamination-
Important Concern for Exports Market
Shelf Life

Rise Of Disease Incidence-
Contagious/ Transmissible Diseases on the Rise
Variant Strains
Complexed Forms Of Diseases
Virulence On The Rise
Indiscriminate Use Of Antibiotics, Giving Rise To Resistant Microbes

General Pattern Of Microbial Load Build- Up In A Non- Biosecure Farm

Disinfection Protocol Implemetnation Does Not Bring
A Sudden Change in the Environment…

General Pattern of gradual microbial load depletion, in implementing biosecurity after an epidemic

Biosecurity- Classification

Conceptual Biosecurity:

  • Location of the Farm
  • Mode of Transport

Structural Biosecurity:

  • Farm Modernization
  • Building and Infrastructure Planning and Designing

Organisational Biosecurity:

  • Disinfection
  • Vaccination
  • Hygiene Measures
  • Record Keeping for Biosecurity parameters

Biosecurity Success- Hierarchy
Importance, Investment and Role

Initial Challenges of Biosecurity

Increased Immediate Costs

  • Direct Cost
  • Additional Manpower
  • Direct Profits Reduced
  • Long Term Plan

Advantages of Following Biosecurity

  • Healthier Livestock Higher Productivity
  • Higher Profits, by Reduced Losses
  • Controlled Pathogen Level in the Farm
  • Losses Due to Potential Epidemics Prevented
  • Safety to Public Health
  • Important for Procuring International Certifications

Modes of Disease Introduction and Transmission

  • Carriers Within A Flock
  • Birds Recently Acquired From An Outside Flock
  • Eggs From Infected Breeder Flocks
  • Human Feet, Hands, And Clothes
  • Dust, Feathers, And Manure On Equipment And Supplies, Such As Trucks, And Egg Flats
  • Feral Birds, Predators, Rodents, Flies, And Insects
  • Live Or Contaminated Vaccines
  • Feed Contaminated At The Manufacturing Plant
  • Water
  • Air

Physio- Chemical Methods to Execute Biosecurity

Interrupt The Pathway Of Disease

  • All Microbes Have Life- Cycle
  • Destroy It By Inhibiting Conducive Atmosphere
  • Adequate Decontamination Of Animal Buildings And Pens Prior To Occupation.
  • Provision Of A Clear Air Supply And Adequate Ventilation
  • Exclusion Of Vectors Of Infection, e.g. Birds, Insects, Rodents, Dogs, And Even Visitors
  • Adequate Disposal Of Sewage, Slurry, And Other Farm Waste
  • Proper Disposal Of Carcasses, Dead Due To Infectious Diseases
  • Provision Of A Safe And Clean Water And Food Supply
  • Use Disinfected Instruments e.g. vaccine administrators, nebulizers etc.
  • Give Sufficient Gap Between Grow Outs

Principle Pathways of Cross Infection and Cross Contamination

Control the Infectious Disease

  • Protect the Susceptible Animals
  • Artificial Immunization (Vaccination)
  • Quarantine of Infected Animals
  • Eliminate Non- Curable Animals

Disinfection (The Key to Biosecurity)

How Disinfection Helps?

  • It Breaks The Life Cycle Of Infectious Microbes
  • Regular Use At Recommended Intervals Prevents The Build-up

Disinfection- Is it Adequate Alone?

What Makes Disinfection Effective?

  • Good Husbandry Practices
  • Strict Hygiene
  • Evacuation Of Food Residues, Dirt And Excreta

Ideal Biosecurity Programme

General Purpose Detergent and Surfactant

Alkaline anionic and non- ionic amphoteric surfactant, foam boosters and sequesterants, with as pleasant citrus deodorant


  • Removes organic matter, particularly cakes from feed, manure, medicines etc. These are a potent
  • Potent biofilm removing agent.
  • Suitable for foaming.
  • Recommended dilution- 1 ml Primeclean per 1 liter of water

5 liters, 20 Liters


Broad- Spectrum Disinfectant


Glutaraldehyde 6.25%; Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 12.50% and Terpine derivatives 4.00%


  • Strong virucide, bactericide, fungicide, effective against protozoa and insect repellent
  • Contact time: 10 minutes
  • Residual Efficacy: 7 days
  • Non- corrosive, non- irritant and non- toxic with pleasant pine odour.


SPRAYING (Terminal & routine disinfection)
Regular disinfection: Spraying at the rate of 1:200 (5ml per liter of water).
Epidemics: 1: 50 (20ml per liter of water)

DIPPING (Foot-bath, Wheel-bath)-
Regular usage: 1:100 (10ml per liter of bath water). Change twice a week, or until spoiled with manure, soil etc.
In outbreaks: 1: 50 (20ml per liter of bath water). Change the solution 3- 4 times a week. per 1 liter of water

1 liter of 1:200 COMBAT solution (5 ml per liter water) per 100 cubic meters of airspace; 2-4 times daily over flock
Completely safe

THERMOFOGGING (for Terminal Disinfection)-
Dilute in 1:1 ratio, and use as a fumigant at the rate of 5 ml solution per cubic meter.

1liter , 5 liters and 20 liters

Water System Sanitizer

Extra stabilized hydrogen peroxide 35%
Silver nitrate 0.08%


  • Erodes and prevents biofilms
  • Removes mineral deposits
  • Controls all water- borne disease
  • Reduces early chick mortality
  • Enhances productivity
  • Has no residues


Empty System:

  • Evacuate the reservoir and the water system.
  • Add AQUAPURE @ 1.5% to 3%, depending upon the biofilm level and water contamination
  • Open the lines, and fill the system. Ensure that the solution reaches deep inside the nipples, cups etc., and passes for a while through them.
  • Leave it for 10 hours (Contact time).
  • Flush the system with clean water.


In Presences of Animals (as Water Sanitizer):

  • 1.Fill the water reservoir completely, and close the water input. Add AQUAPURE @ 75ml per 1000 liters of water (0.0075%). When the reservoir is empty, repeat the procedure.
  • 2.After every 2 days, increase by 75ml per 1000 litres, until a maximum level of dosage 350ml per 1000 liters water is reached (0.035% diluted).
  • 3.Continue until the level of biofilm and contamination is under control.

5 liters and 20 liters

Fastest- acting Fumigant


Paraformaldehyde 93% w/w prills


  • Disinfection of Livestock and poultry houses and hatcheries
  • Effective against all Viruses, Bacteria and Fungi Including spores
  • Safer than Formalin/ Pot. Permanganate combination
  • Higher concentration achieved in closed fumigation
  • Longer Contact Time
  • House Becomes free of Rodents and Insects


  • Terminal Disinfection: 320 grams FORMAGENE per 100 cubic meters.
  • .Egg Fumigation: 10 gm per cubic meter, by heating in a reception room before the eggs enter the hatchery, in the setters-before the 3rd day or after the 8th day or in egg transport vehicle.
  • Nest Boxes: Place 15-20 gm FORMAGENE in each nest box. Heat from sitting hen will release the gas.

10kg drums

Broad- spectrum Disinfectant

Alcohol, Formaldehyde, Substituted phenols, and Quaternary Ammonium
Compounds (QUATS), along with Detergents and Amphoteric Surfactants


  • General disinfection of the farm
  • Suitable replacement of White Phenol
  • Broader-  spectrum
  • Longer Residual Life
  • Quicker Action
  • Pleasant Smell
  • Bactericide, Fungicide, Virucide, Anti- protozoan, Wormicide and Algicide


  • Previously washed visually clean surfaces-- 1:200
  • Unwashed (scrapped and brushed) surfaces-- 1:100
  • Use this solution as
    •  Impervious Ceilings, walls, etc. - 5 liters / 200m2
    •  Pervious floors etc. - 5 liters / 100m2
  •  IMPACT can be applied via pressure washer set at low pressure or a knapsack sprayer in order to wet surfaces without run– off.


  • 4 days (recommended  twice a week)


  • 5 liters, 20 Liters

Time- tested Water Sanitizer


  • Iodophore: Available Iodine 3%
  • Phosphoric acid: 200 g


  • Broad-spectrum virucide, fungicide and bactericide, recommended for water sanitization in poultry farms.


  • Drinking water – 0.25ml / lit of water (400 parts)

5 liters, 20 Liters

QUAT- based
Slaughter House Sanitizer

A complex blend of Quaternary ammonium compound and nonionic surfactants.


  • Highly effective, odour-free, non-staining, non-tainting detergent sanitizer
  •  Cleans and protects any hard surface without abrasion, bleaching, smell or taint
  • Suitable for use on all surfaces: metal, wood, glass, plastic, rubber, and polymer
  • Routine cleaning and disinfection of walls and floors
  • Safe for sanitation of surfaces in food preparation area

Regular cleaning – 1:160 (30 ml in 5 liters of water)
Heavy Soiling: 1: 50, post scrubbing and wash

20 Liters

Recommended Biosecurity Program with the Montajat Range

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