Optimizing piglet performance through appetite stimulation and gut health

Published on: 10/09/2019
Author/s : Mathilde Ramillien, Product Manager Palatants –Flavorist with Pancosma, Switzerland. References are available on request to the author. Previously published in ASIAN PORK MAGAZINE – July/August 2019.

Mode of action of taste enhancers Commonly used in feed to enhance appetite by providing an attractive taste, their function is to target the receptors of the 5 main tastes, namely: sweet, salty, bitter, acid and umami. Many tests and studies have demonstrated the positive effect on the condition of animals and consequently improved performances. It is known that a good taste enhancer improves...

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Soraya Shirazi-Beechey Soraya Shirazi-Beechey
Professor of Molecular Physiology and Biochemistry
October 9, 2019
I have been researching for Pancosma in the areas mentioned in the article above since 2008, and I am delighted to read the article. Congratulations to the author Mathilde Ramillien.

I wish to provide further background information and add relevant publications to complement the above article.
The work in my laboratory at the University of Liverpool, UK was the first to show that the sweet taste receptor, consisting of 2 subunits, Taste 1 Receptor 2 (T1R2) and 3 (T1R3) not only are expressed in the tongue, but also in the enteroendocrine (sensor) cells of the intestine (Dyer et al. 2005) and that this receptor in the gut is activated by artificial sweeteners resulting in enhancement in the activity/levels of intestinal glucose transporter (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, SGLT1) resulting in increased ability of the gut to absorb glucose (electrolyte and water) (Margolskee et al. 2007; Dyer et al. 2007).
We identified through the research funded by Pancosma in 2008, the molecular basis of the effect of the sweetener, Sucram included in the diet of early weaned piglets in preventing diarrhoea, malnutrition and dehydration (Moran et al 2010). Furthermore, we demonstrated the mode of action of a sweetener component of Sucram, neohesperidin dihydrochacone, NHDC, in enhancing the population abundance of probiotic bacteria, lactobacillus, which enhances immunity in early weaned piglets (Daly et al. 2014, 2016).
We have shown that a key player in the pathway controlling intestinal glucose absorption is the gut hormone, glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2). Activation of intestinal sweet receptor by sweeteners results in secretion of GLP-2 from the enteroendocrine cells. GLP-2 increases intestinal glucose absorption and gut tissue integrity via a neuro-paracrine pathway (Moran et al 2018).
I wish to include the publications below from my laboratory which can illuminate on and add further to the very nice article written by Mathilde Ramillien from Pancosma.

Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 and the Enteric Nervous System Are Components of Cell-Cell Communication Pathway Regulating Intestinal Na+/Glucose Co-transport.
Moran AW, Al-Rammahi MA, Batchelor DJ, Bravo DM, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Front Nutr. 2018 Oct 26;5:101. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2018.00101. eCollection 2018.

Composition and diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota along the entire length of the pig gastrointestinal tract; dietary influences.
Kelly J, Daly K, Moran AW, Ryan S, Bravo D, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Environ Microbiol. 2017 Apr;19(4):1425-1438. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.13619. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Bacterial sensing underlies artificial sweetener-induced growth of gut Lactobacillus.
Daly K, Darby AC, Hall N, Wilkinson MC, Pongchaikul P, Bravo D, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Environ Microbiol. 2016 Jul;18(7):2159-71. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12942. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Sweet taste receptor expression in ruminant intestine and its activation by artificial sweeteners to regulate glucose absorption.
Moran AW, Al-Rammahi M, Zhang C, Bravo D, Calsamiglia S, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
J Dairy Sci. 2014;97(8):4955-72. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8004. Epub 2014 Jun 2.
.
Role of nutrient-sensing taste 1 receptor (T1R) family members in gastrointestinal chemosensing.
Shirazi-Beechey SP, Daly K, Al-Rammahi M, Moran AW, Bravo D.
Br J Nutr. 2014 Jun;111 Suppl 1:S8-15.

Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.
Daly K, Darby AC, Hall N, Nau A, Bravo D, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Br J Nutr. 2014 Jun;111 Suppl 1:S30-5. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513002274. Epub 2014 Jan 2.

Sensing of amino acids by the gut-expressed taste receptor T1R1-T1R3 stimulates CCK secretion.
Daly K, Al-Rammahi M, Moran A, Marcello M, Ninomiya Y, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013 Feb 1;304(3):G271-82. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00074.2012. Epub 2012 Nov 29.

Expression of sweet receptor components in equine small intestine: relevance to intestinal glucose transport.
Daly K, Al-Rammahi M, Arora DK, Moran AW, Proudman CJ, Ninomiya Y, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012 Jul 15;303(2):R199-208. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00031.2012. Epub 2012 May 2.

Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: intestinal glucose sensing and regulation of glucose absorption: implications for swine nutrition.
Shirazi-Beechey SP, Moran AW, Bravo D, Al-Rammahi M.
J Anim Sci. 2011 Jun;89(6):1854-62. doi: 10.2527/jas.2010-3695. Epub 2011 Jan 28. Review.

Sodium/glucose cotransporter-1, sweet receptor, and disaccharidase expression in the intestine of the domestic dog and cat: two species of different dietary habit.
Batchelor DJ, Al-Rammahi M, Moran AW, Brand JG, Li X, Haskins M, German AJ, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Jan;300(1):R67-75. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00262.2010. Epub 2010 Oct 27.

Expression of Na+/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) in the intestine of piglets weaned to different concentrations of dietary carbohydrate.
Moran AW, Al-Rammahi MA, Arora DK, Batchelor DJ, Coulter EA, Ionescu C, Bravo D, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Br J Nutr. 2010 Sep;104(5):647-55. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510000954. Epub 2010 Apr 13.

Expression of Na+/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) is enhanced by supplementation of the diet of weaning piglets with artificial sweeteners.
Moran AW, Al-Rammahi MA, Arora DK, Batchelor DJ, Coulter EA, Daly K, Ionescu C, Bravo D, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Br J Nutr. 2010 Sep;104(5):637-46. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510000917. Epub 2010 Mar 26.

Intestinal glucose sensing and regulation of intestinal glucose absorption.
Dyer J, Daly K, Salmon KS, Arora DK, Kokrashvili Z, Margolskee RF, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Nov;35(Pt 5):1191-4. Review.

T1R3 and gustducin in gut sense sugars to regulate expression of Na+-glucose cotransporter 1.
Margolskee RF, Dyer J, Kokrashvili Z, Salmon KS, Ilegems E, Daly K, Maillet EL, Ninomiya Y, Mosinger B, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 18;104(38):15075-80. Epub 2007 Aug 27.

Expression of sweet taste receptors of the T1R family in the intestinal tract and enteroendocrine cells.
Dyer J, Salmon KS, Zibrik L, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Biochem Soc Trans. 2005 Feb;33(Pt 1):302-5. Patented

Mechanism of glucose sensing in the small intestine.
Dyer J, Vayro S, Shirazi-Beechey SP.
Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Dec;31(Pt 6):1140-2. Review.



Reply
October 10, 2019
Dra. Mathilde, sujeto de interés en la producción porcina. Aprovechando su comprensión sobre el tema, me gustaría su opinión sobre el riesgo de NEOFOBIA, es decir, los estimuladores del apetito pueden tener el efecto contrario en los lechones después del destete, reduciendo la ingesta de alimento si el estimulador no está incluido en el alimento proporcionado a estos animales durante la lactancia . Y en el caso específico del efecto del glutamato monosódico, el aumento de la liberación de CCK, por su reconocido efecto sobre la reducción del vaciado gástrico, no mejoraría la conversión alimenticia de los animales. Felicitaciones por el artículo y esperamos sus comentarios.
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