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Joaquin Armando Paulino Paniagua
Universidad ISA (Instituto Superior de Agricultura)
Date: November 19, 2013
Discussion created on 11/19/2013

The nutritional quality of soybean meal is determined by several factors, one of these thermal treatments are performed during processing and producing the inactivation of toxic and / or soy antinutrients. There are several anti-nutritional factors that limit absorption a number of nutrients, reducing by more than 50% its nutritional value and carry negative digestive effects. Some of these factors are trypsin inhibitors, hemagglutinins, goitrogenic factors, antivitamins, saponins, oligosaccharides, phytate. Heat treatment to denature these factors may also decompose the essential amino acids such as cysteine, lysine and arginine, so the treatment must be controlled.

What´s your experience and opinion about this?

Joaquin Armando Paulino Paniagua
Agro Engineer Zootechnist
Universidad ISA (Instituto Superior de Agricultura)
Universidad ISA (Instituto Superior de Agricultura)
Chris Joy Mulindwa Chris Joy Mulindwa
Production manager
November 20, 2013
In countries like Uganda where fish is used as a main protein yet very expensive, soya is an inevitable alternative. Uganda pig industry is still controlled by smallholder farmers who cannot afford heavy machinery for soya processing to kill/denature digestion inhibitors and the feed companies available mainly focus on fish targeted for poultry feeds, little is dedicated to piggery.

Our company ( is trying to look for various ways to help smallholder pig farmers cut production costs by using alternatives for expensive important nutrient foods.

May be someone here may give us more information on how a farmer can simply process soya for his/her small herd.
You can talk to me directly:

November 20, 2013

The companies that sell grains and soybean meal (Broker) are buying soybean meal in Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay that are poorly processed and mixed with soybeam meal from United States, these soybean meal is called (Soybean meal rainbow) and is causing a syndrome rapid transit of feed in poultry and pigs, high feed conversion, diarrhea and stunting.

Ivan Kostian Ivan Kostian
Commercial Manager
November 20, 2013
Extrusion is very effective for this purpose.

Our company produce quality equipment.
We make sales in more than 40 countries.

We kindly ask you to see our web-page
Dave Albin, Ph.D. Dave Albin, Ph.D.
VP, Nutrition & Extrusion Technologies
November 20, 2013
Hi Joaquin,
If purchasing soybean meal is not working for you, work with Insta-Pro International ( to purchase low cost, durable equipment to make your own soybean meal. This way the quality and supply can be controlled.

Please contact us, we can help you! Decades of experience with soybean processing....

Dave Albin
December 2, 2013

It is becoming well established that the majority of soybean meal is under processed which causes far more problems in poultry performance than over processed. We need to get urease index as close to 0 as possible this will result in TIA below 2 mg/kg which will give maximum bird performance. Unfortunately the most effective measure of over processing is measurement of amino acid availibility using NIR which is not that easy.

Dave Albin, Ph.D. Dave Albin, Ph.D.
VP, Nutrition & Extrusion Technologies
December 17, 2013
Under processing of soybean meal is a concern for poultry and swine, and it may be easier to under process than over process. Insta-Pro high shear extruders have been used for decades to properly process soybeans. We know the quality control points that need to be monitored during production to ensure that soybeans are processed correctly (not over or under processed). The result is a consistent, safe, and quality product each time, with highly-available amino acids and energy from soy oil.

Dave Albin
Michael Martin Michael Martin
Sales Director - Africa, Europe & Middle East
December 18, 2013
In the 1990s Dr Carl Parsons at the University of Illinois reviewed soybean meal quality control methods. He concluded that the urease test is useful for determining if soybean meal has been under-cooked, but cannot accurately detect if it has been over-processed. To check for over-processing, he suggested the KOH Solubility test. PDI (Protein Dispersibility Index) is another useful test, so long as you follow the method to the letter (8,500 RPM for 10 minutes).

As a reminder, acceptable ranges are:

Urease 0.05-0.20
KOH not below 70%
PDI 80-85%

That is for defatted soybean meal. For fullfat soy, it’s a different story.

In a 2008 paper Quality Control of Full-Fat Soybean using Urease Activity: Critical Assessment of the Method, Dragan Palic (then at S Africa’s ARC) and colleagues concluded that the value of urease activity in monitoring fullfat soy processing is highly questionable and it therefore “cannot be recommended as a reliable indicator for the FFS quality control.” Palic also confirmed that the PDI test cannot be used for FFS, presumably because the high oil content distorts protein solubility.

Bear in mind that solvent extraction plants see their task as optimising oil extraction, the meal is regarded as a by-product. Extrusion-Expelling (physical processing without use of chemicals) gives the processor more control over meal quality and, if operated properly, will deliver meal with higher nutritional value compared to solvent meal.

Last but not least, it’s important to take account of age and dose-response, as Julian Wiseman at the University of Nottingham has demonstrated. 4 mg/kg trypsin inhibitor may be ok for growers/finishers at 20% inclusion, but the same amount at 40% inclusion (for example in turkey starter diets) means the bird is consuming double the amount of trypsin inhibitor!
Dave Albin, Ph.D. Dave Albin, Ph.D.
VP, Nutrition & Extrusion Technologies
February 11, 2014

More and more soybeans available for quality processing...

Source: University of Illinois farmdocDaily

The interest in the export projections was generated by the rapid pace of export sales so far this year, particularly for soybeans. Through the first 23 weeks of the marketing year, soybean exports had already reached 81% of the USDA's January projection of exports for the entire year. Export commitments (shipments plus outstanding sales) as of January 30 accounted for 106% of that January projection. With year-ending stocks already projected at a very tight 150 million bushels, market participants were eager to see how the USDA expected to see exports, ending stocks, and price reconciled.

For corn, exports through the first 23 weeks of the marketing year had reached 42% of the USDA's January projection. Export commitments as of Jan. 30, however, stood at 91% of that projection. While year-ending stocks of corn will be ample, an increase in the export projection was expected to result in the third consecutive month of a smaller projection for those stocks and provide support for old-crop corn prices.

The interest in the South American production forecasts was generated by late-season weather issues that included excessive precipitation and flooding in parts of Argentina and excessive heat and dryness in parts of southern Brazil. Record-large soybean crops that would help alleviate the tightness in U.S. supplies during the last half of the 2013-14 marketing year have been expected for both countries. The projected size of the Brazilian crop was increased last month and the projection of year-ending stocks was increased for both countries. Smaller production projections this month could result in lower projections of stocks for one or both countries. 

Corn production in both countries is expected to be less than that of last year, particularly in Brazil, but large enough to maintain an ample level of stocks. The projected size of the Argentine crop was reduced last month and the projection of year-ending stocks was reduced for both countries. Even smaller crops, then, would point to a further drawdown in those stocks.

Lutfullah Naqvi Lutfullah Naqvi
Specialist in Animal Nutrition
November 26, 2016

What is the difference between KOH solubility determined through Arab & Dale Method 1990 and ISO method 14244 -2014 (E)? Can anybody comment?
Do Arab & Dale Method is outdated


March 28, 2017

I believe that our product could be a great alternative for sourcing your own processed Soybeans to be made for feed. Our Calormatic offers infinite adjustment in heating, retention time, air flow & roasting temperatures we can roast, toast, thaw & process a variety of grain based and specialty products. throughout the years we have processed the following:

Oyster shells
Rice and Rice Hulls
chicken Litter
Specialty products for bedding

and more!

If you should want to see or discuss this more in-depth, please contact me directly!

Ph: 937-325-1511
cell: 937-896-9888


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