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NUTRIAD Presents Poland 2016 Mycotoxin Survey Maize

Published on: 01/04/2017
Author/s : Radka Borutova, Nutriad

Mycotoxins are a hidden danger in animal feed. One of the most important negative factors in crop production and animal feed quality is the contamination of feed commodities by moulds and mycotoxins. As much as 20% of the world’s cereal grains are generally known to be contaminated with measurable levels of mycotoxins (Placha et al., 2009). Picture 1: Maize harvested in Slovakia 2016 &co...

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Daniel Mc Elroy Daniel Mc Elroy
Poultry farmer
January 4, 2017
What about wheat and barley, would a steam process treat this problem or dry cured solve it
Reply
Dr Valeriy Kryukov Dr Valeriy Kryukov
Doctor in Biological Sciences
March 10, 2020

Daniel Mc Elroy!
Dear Sir!
Various technological treatments do not reduce the concentration of mycotoxins in feed. The content of mycotoxins on the grain surface can be slightly reduced as a result of irradiation with ultraviolet or treatment with ozone or ammonia gas. But these techniques are only suitable for the laboratory.

Reply
April 21, 2020

Daniel Mc Elroy
To my knowledge, the only system that will remove/greatly reduce Aflatoxin, Don, T-2 and ZER is the TOXI-SCRUB machine based on Ozone treatment. This broadband treatment works because many mycotoxins have double-bonds that can be Oxidised (opened) with Ozone.

Reply
Dr Valeriy Kryukov Dr Valeriy Kryukov
Doctor in Biological Sciences
May 1, 2020
Dear Peer Hansen

I know about the effects of ozone on mycotoxins. Experiments that were conducted in the laboratory are difficult to translate into industrial production.
1. ozone Treatment requires exposure, that is, time. Industrial feed production is based on in-line technology, meaning there is no time for ozone action. If the grain (not feed!!!) pre-treated with ozone, you need separate bins for grain and its mixing.
2. Don't forget that Ozone is a strong oxidizer and will destroy not only the mycotoxin. The effects of oxidized fat are very undesirable.

The only reliable method is strict input quality control of grain
Reply
Radka Borutova Radka Borutova
Business Development Manager Mycotoxin Management
Adisseo Adisseo
Oost-Vlaanderen, Belgium
January 4, 2017
Dear Daniel,

Mycotoxins are thermostable. You can destroy them by such high temperatures which would already destroy nutritional value of your feed. Even when you freeze grain, mycotoxins will survive. Mycotoxins are toxins and are not living microorganisms like molds.
Reply
daniel severino daniel severino
Agriculturist
March 9, 2020

Radka Borutova noted with thanks Dr

So can those be removed or neutralize these toxins when feeding using which medication to nutralize or may reduce the amount or rate the level of toxines for the animal to servive with less toxins?
Regards, 
Daniel.

Reply
Radka Borutova Radka Borutova
Business Development Manager Mycotoxin Management
Adisseo Adisseo
Oost-Vlaanderen, Belgium
March 10, 2020
daniel severino yes indeed, some mycotoxins can be adsorbed or bio-inactivated inside the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Never less other supportive strategies as immune system support, organ support and antioxidant system support are also needed. You can approach local Adisseo representative for more details.
Reply
September 15, 2019
It is encouraging to see that AFB1 and OTA could not build up. The samples were taken soon after the harvest and storage AFB1 producing molds could not proliferate. Although standard harvest procedure might have been followed, inclusion of grain physical parameters like moisture content would be more informative.
Reply
Dr Valeriy Kryukov Dr Valeriy Kryukov
Doctor in Biological Sciences
February 7, 2020

Dear, Sirs!
No need to talk about aflatoxin binding; all binders retain 90-98% aflatoxin. Of interest is the binding of DON and T-2 toxin.
As well as a change in the binding of 3-4 toxins with their simultaneous presence in vitro in different ratios.

Reply
Radka Borutova Radka Borutova
Business Development Manager Mycotoxin Management
Adisseo Adisseo
Oost-Vlaanderen, Belgium
February 10, 2020

Dear Dr. Kryukov. The mycotoxins you refer to... DON, T-2 toxin or any other trichothecenes belong to less polar mycotoxins and their successful adsorption in vivo is questionable. As you refer to in vitro adsorption test, please be aware that in vitro adsorption tests do not reflect real efficacy of product in vivo and thus should not be taken as the only efficacy measurement criterion.

Reply
Dr Valeriy Kryukov Dr Valeriy Kryukov
Doctor in Biological Sciences
February 10, 2020

Dear Radka!
You have provided interesting data that are consistent with the results of other researchers. It has long been established that aflatoxin is a toxin in Southeast Asia, where it is warm and humid. However, in European countries and in the east of Russia it is hard to find "Southeast Asia", it is hidden in silos. After harvesting the grass mass, silage ripening begins - fermentation is in progress. This raises the temperature. In case of leakage and penetration of air, the formation of aflatoxin is activated. In some cases, its concentration in corn silage reached 150-270 µg / kg, and in the foci up to 480 µg / kg. Therefore, aflatoxin should not be considered a toxin only in warm countries.
Mycotoxin contamination of raw materials is a routine workflow procedure. But to understand the action of adsorbents of mycotoxins is a science. It is necessary to contrast the tales of sellers of aflatoxins with the demands of science on real evidence.
In vitro methods are not suitable for this. They have a different purpose.
(Manafi et al. 2009, tab. 2).






Table 2
Parts of the mycotoxins bound by commercial adsorbent in vitro, %

Mycotoxins Aflatoxin Ochratoxin T-2 toxin
pH in media
4,5 6,5 4,5 6,5 4,5 6,5
AF 90,7 94,7 - - - -
OA - - 61,7 63,1 - -
T-2 - - - - 74,3 71,3
AF+OA 62,0 65,8 33,7 34,0 - -
AF+T-2 43,2 44,7 - - 46,1 46,4
OA+T-2 - - 34,1 34,1 45,3 47,5
AF+OA+T-2 33,5 32,4 5,3 6,3 9,1 9,7
* AF: B1 aflatoxin - 0,5 mg/kg; OA: Ochratoxin - A 1 mg/kg; T-2: T-2 toxin - 2 mg/kg.
The media of an incubation was presented by a feed suspension in buffer solution

Reply
Dr Valeriy Kryukov Dr Valeriy Kryukov
Doctor in Biological Sciences
February 10, 2020
The above table results from my review: Manafi M., H. D. Narayanaswamy and N. Pirany 2009. In vitro binding ability of mycotoxin binder in commercial broiler feed. African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 4 , pp. 141-143,
Reply
Jonathan Tarus Jonathan Tarus
Student
February 11, 2020

Maize is the most popular among the cereals both as food and feed, especially in developing nations. So if the binders work up to 98 percent efficacy then, in case of aflatoxin, it is a great step forward towards minimizing effects of mycotoxins in men and animals. Are these binders effective to this level in other mycotoxins in the food and feed chain?

Reply
Radka Borutova Radka Borutova
Business Development Manager Mycotoxin Management
Adisseo Adisseo
Oost-Vlaanderen, Belgium
February 14, 2020
Jonathan Tarus if we look at in vitro data than my answer is yes. Many clay minerals have good binding ability towards aflatoxins which are very polar molecules. Never less if you apply product in vivo and look at the biomarket aflatoxin M1 in milk you may see that your 98% can easily drop to 50-65%. Finally efficacy of each binder in vivo depends on concentration of mycotoxin and dosage of the product...Each binder capacity is saturable which means if you underdose the product your efficacy will drop.
Reply
Ram Singh Ram Singh
Ph.D (Animal Nutrition)
February 13, 2020

Monitoring of mycotoxins contamination in maize is very important. In India, analysis of maize samples revealed high level of mycotoxins contamination, particularly aflatoxins.

Reply
Dr Valeriy Kryukov Dr Valeriy Kryukov
Doctor in Biological Sciences
February 14, 2020
Dear friends!
Dear Radka!
For many, many years of research work, I managed to read the information that you refer to a little earlier than you. In vitro tests in any design cannot be used to evaluate the effect of adsorbents in vivo. I believe that the direction of science associated with the development of adsorbents of mycotoxins for the prevention of mycotoxicosis is unpromising in a scientific sense. Information noise is created by sellers of adsorbents.
Reply
Dr Valeriy Kryukov Dr Valeriy Kryukov
Doctor in Biological Sciences
February 28, 2020
DON, T-2 toxin or any other trichothecenes belong to less polar mycotoxins ... , not less polar .... Very wick polar ...
Reply
daniel severino daniel severino
Agriculturist
March 14, 2020

So, Dr., what are the results and clinical signs on mycotoxins in birds and other animals?

Regards,
Daniel.

Reply
Dr Valeriy Kryukov Dr Valeriy Kryukov
Doctor in Biological Sciences
May 1, 2020

Dear forum participants.
Some of You took offense at me because I said that adsorbent sellers are not selling the product, but fairy tales about the product. I can confirm that! This statement applies only to adsorbents. Sellers do not know the scientific basis of the product and repeat what they will be told about aflatoxin. Then the concept of "aflatoxin" is identified with the concept of "mycotoxins". Perhaps they do it out of ignorance.
Once again, remember that the FDA in the United States has not approved any adsorbents. Officials in this Commission are not enemies of adsorbents. They didn't get the necessary proof of their usefulness.

Reply
Daniel Mc Elroy Daniel Mc Elroy
Poultry farmer
May 1, 2020

Would flower of sulphur mixed with feed not sort mycotoxin?

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