Aflatoxin and Vomitoxin Contribution of Individual Feedstuffs to the Dairy Cow Diet

Published on: 02/14/2020
Author/s : Alvaro Garcia / DVM, PHD. San Diego State University, Director of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

When addressing mycotoxin issues the fact that multiple ingredients make up a dairy cattle diet can be viewed both positively and negatively. Multiple feeds dilute the toxins from any given feed, resulting in a safer diet. On the other hand, since the effect of toxins can be additive, if there are multiple contaminated feeds, toxicity of individual feeds will be compounded. This article addresses ...

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Dr Valeriy Kryukov Dr Valeriy Kryukov
Doctor in Biological Sciences
February 14, 2020
Dear Alvaro Garcia!
You have done a very large amount of research. However, how do they differ from the publication of Radka Borutova? Just because you studied different objects! The conclusions are all correct, but they are associated only with the described study. This is an in-depth control of the contamination of raw materials with mycotoxins. This is a routine, albeit necessary work. She did not lead to new scientific conclusions. There are many similar works. The publications of the last decade differ from those that were 20-30 years ago in that more advanced analytical methods are applied and, in general, the previous conclusions are confirmed. You can conduct another 1- or 100 such studies, but how will they advance your (our) knowledge? What is the promising goal of these studies? I repeat: I look at them as an analytical work to control the contamination of raw materials with mycotoxins. I have no right to give you advice, but during that time and the resources that you used you could find a lot of interesting things.
For example: A lot of work on the effect of individual mycotoxins on animals. Minimum permissible levels of mikotoxins in feed have been established, below which feed is considered safe. But how to evaluate the effect of several mycotoxins if they are simultaneously present in the feed and the concentration of each is lower than MPL?
I started work in this direction and one article was published in Russian. Below I propose a fragment from an article published in Russian magazines:
“ In practical conditions in feed there can be some MT at the different concentration capable to cause polymycotoxicosis. So, as a result of the analysis in compound feeds for broilers some mycotoxins were revealed: concentration of each of them didn't exceed MPL (tab. 1).
Table 1
The assessment of compound feeds for broilers on the mycotoxins content.
mg/kg Complete feeds
Starter, mg/kg Grower, mg/kg Starter Grower ?PL, mg/kg
?P? shares
Aflatoxin ?1 0, 02 0, 005 0, 8 0, 20 0,025
Desoxynivalenol (DON) 0,40 0,540 0,4 0,54 1,00
?-2 toxin 0,04 0,042 0,4 0,42 0,10
Ochratoxin A 0,004 0,004 0,4 0,40 0,01
Fumonizin 1,00 3,500 0,2 0,70 5,00
In total 1,464 4,091 2.20 2,26
On the base of the current legislation, the above presented feeds can be fed without restrictions, so concentration of each MT is lower than MPL. The conclusion is not indisputable, but there are no other bases for the conclusion. On the estimation of parts value MPL it is possible to calculate the significance of each MT in parts of MPC which can be summarized, whether to estimate opportunities of the organism protection system. The sum of mycotoxins concentration in Starter consists 1,464, and in Grower - 4,091 mg/kg: a difference is 2,8 times. The increase in the sum of toxins in Grower is caused by the increased fumonizin content, but it remained lower than MPL. Summation of mycotoxins amounts in feed doesn't give the grounds for its objective assessment. However on the sum parts of MPL toxicity of feeds occurred identical and more than twice exceeded MPL. It means that it is impossible to call such feeds as a good-quality one.”
For Cite: Kryukov.V.S. Assessment of the level of mycotoxin contamination of feeds and efficacy of adsorbents/ Problemy biologii productivnykh zhivotnykh - Problems of Productive Animal Biology, 2014, 3: 37-50
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May 4, 2020
Dear Dr. Alvaro Garcia,
Thank you for your very good work and technical description. The problem is that this approach, specifically from USA where the harvesting system and storage of the grains is done with a high technology, and where the Aflatoxin can be relatively well controlled with a good management and environment.
This situation does not fit very well for our working conditions. As I am working in Dairy consultancy services in Tropical and Subtropical conditions, then the high moisture and harvesting conditions in these countries is not the appropriate. The Aflatoxin is a permanent problem and we fighting to control in the feeds, except in the imported grains.
In another hand, the corn and specifically Corn Gluten 60% which is a good source of bypass protein for milking cows, as well Cotton Seed whole, these can present about 200 to 250 PPB when I included into the formulas to these feeds, I use a reduce quantities according the level of contamination then I can controlled with good quality of Sodium Bentonite.
At this point I arrive to the conclusion, after to many test with different brands blockers that this is the best alternative for absorption and control the Aflatoxin into the TMR. About 100 to 250 gm by cow of SB, according the level of Aflatoxin, also is an inexpensive product in comparison with the commercial brands.
I will be appreciate your comments about Vomitoxin in this case
Thank you and regards
Gustavo Pourraid
Dairy Consultant & Adviser Services
Farm Management Expert

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