Twenty years ago clays were used as anti-caking agents. In the 80's, Research
was done by Dr. Taylor and Dr. Phillips 87-88 with Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminum
Silicates (HSCAS) as an Aflatoxin adsorbent.
Other compounds tested: Activated carbon, sodium bentonite, calcium bentonite
Adsorbed Aflatoxin, but not with the same efficiency or potency
Many products adsorb but do
not retain the Aflatoxin. HSCAS adsorb and retain 95%t6 Aflatoxin. Most bentonites/zeolites
were tested in vitro or in vivo at levels of 0.5 -1 ppm (500 to 1,000 ppb).
Most of the HSCAS were tested in vitro or in vivo at 5 - 10 ppm (5,000 to 10,000
Many mycotoxin adsorbents sometimes were effective and sometimes
were not due to the following:
a) If the feed is highly contaminated
the binding sites are filled therefore, the adsorbent is not able to absorb
and retain all the Aflatoxin.
b) If the mycotoxin problem was other
than Aflatoxin, the binder was not able to adsorb the other types of mycotoxin.
Awareness of the existence of many types of mycotoxins started in the early
90's, some of them more toxic than Aflatoxin. Test showed that 95%
of commercial feeds have more than one type of mycotoxin specially when SAMPLES
ARE TAKEN FROM THE FEEDERS.
Tests done in the 90's proved that the combination
of toxins at low levels of toxicity can be more toxic than just one toxin at
a high level of toxicity. Most mycotoxin absorbents only adsorb Aflatoxin, therefore
if other mycotoxins are present there are no results.
A NEW CONCEPT: A well balanced
combination of different HSCAS that
are activated by heat drying process:
you obtain a synergistic effect increasing the capacity and spectrum of the
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
- What are mycotoxins?
Mycotoxins are metabolites from molds. Very harmful to animals, even at low
levels. They pose a significant problem, specially in tropical and humid regions.
If we use a mold inhibitor, do we need to use a Mycotoxin Adsorbent?
A mold inhibitor only controls the growth of molds but doesn't do anything
against the mycotoxins. Mycotoxins remain in the grain.
- If I have to choose between a mold inhibitor
and a mycotoxin binder which one should I use?
We always recommend to use both.
If you have to choose only one, use the mycotoxin adsorbent.
a) Mycotoxins cause more problems than mold.
b) If you use only a mold inhibitor, you still have the mycotoxins that were
present in the feed.
- Do mycotoxins only have an effect
over conversion and mortality?
They not only affect conversion and mortality but more important, they also
affect the immunologic system causing secondary problems:
- Vaccines do not perform as they should.
-Animals are easily affected by bacteria such as Salmonella, E coli, etc.
In most cases if you control the mycotoxin all secondary problems are reduced.
- Why did we not get positive results
when we used a mycotoxin adsorbent?
a) Most mycotoxin absorbents ONLY bind Aflatoxin
b) The correct dosage of most mycotoxin absorbents in order to be effective
is 5 to 20 kg per ton.
- When do we need to add a mycotoxin
Whenever you have mycotoxin present in the feed. Ninety Five percent of feeds
have mycotoxin contamination and specially in humid and warm countries.
If there are very low level of mycotoxins. Do we need to use a mycotoxin
Whenever several mycotoxins are combined at low levels, they have a synergistic
effect that can be even more toxic than one mycotoxin at a high level. You
need a wide spectrum mycotoxin adsorbent.
- From where do you recommend to take
samples to be analyzed for mycotoxins levels?
It is important to take samples from both, raw ingredients and the finished
feed. It is also very important to take samples from Feeders to know what
levels of mycotoxins you have at farm level.
Difference between samples of raw ingredients and feeders
|20 ppb of Aflatoxin
|30 to 60 ppb of Aflatoxin
||2 Mycotoxins + Other
mycotoxins of fusarium group
NOTE: a) Molds, under stress increase
the production of mycotoxins. The stress is caused by changes in temperature,
humidity, oxygen and nutrient availability.
You can have high mold count with very little levels of mycotoxin. However
if you submit the mold to stress the feed may suddenly have a high content
b) Sub-dosages of mold inhibitor may increase mold growth.
- Does the Mycotoxin absorbents absorb
Always request tests, both In
vitro and specially In vivo to show
if the clay adsorbed the nutrients.
Trials In vivo: Control
vs. Control + Mycotoxin Adsorbent
If the control + the mycotoxin Adsorbent
does worst than the control, it will be an indication that it is absorbing