Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A Alone or in Combination on Carcass Traits and Organ Weights in Broiler Chickens

Published on: 6/9/2020
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Abstract

To evaluate the impact of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA) and their interactions on carcass traits and organ weights, day-old broiler chicks (n=288) were divided into 9 treatment groups (T1: control; T2: T1 + 150 ppb AFB1; T3: T1 + 300 ppb AFB1; T4: T1 + 150 ppb OTA; T5: T1 + 250 ppb OTA; T6: T1 + 150 ppb AFB1 + 150 ppb OTA; T7: T1 + 150 ppb AFB1 + 250 ppb OTA; T8: T1 + 300 ppb AFB1 + 150 ppb OTA; T9: T1 + 300 ppb AFB1 + 250 ppb OTA). Each diet was fed to 4 replicated groups of 8 birds each from 1 to 42 days of age. The results revealed no significant (P<0.05) difference among various dietary treatments with regard to slaughter traits (shrinkage loss, dressing yield, eviscerated yield) and cut-up parts (thigh, drumstick, breast, back, neck and wing) values. The combine feeding of aflatoxin and ochratoxin in 150 ppb AFB1 + 150 ppb OTA (T6); 150 ppb AFB1 + 250 ppb OTA (T7) and 300 ppb AFB1 + 150 ppb OTA (T8) levels resulted in additive effect of mycotoxins and in 300 ppb AFB1 + 250 ppb OTA (T9) caused synergistic toxicity on relative weights of liver, gizzard and heart. Feeding of mycotoxins in combination in T6, T7, T8 and T9 resulted in additive adverse effect of mycotoxins on relative weights of kidneys and bursa of Fabricius. Combined feeding had additive interaction of mycotoxins in T6 and synergistic interaction in T7, T8 and T9 on relative weights of spleen. It was concluded that aflatoxin and ochratoxin either alone or in combination did not produce any significant effects on slaughter traits or cut-up parts yields. Combine feeding of mycotoxins however caused an additive or synergistic effect on relative organ weights in broiler chickens.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, Ochratoxin A, Organ weight, Carcass traits, Broiler chicken.

1. Introduction

Mycotoxins has been reported as worldwide contaminants/co-contaminants of food and feed ingredients (Katole et al., 2013; Patel et al., 2015). The toxic effects of mycotoxins i.e. mycoxicosis, is characterized by its nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects in animals and poultry (Patil et al., 2005, 2006, 2014, 2017a, b; Patial et al., 2013; Patil and Degloorkar, 2016a, b, 2018; Singh, 2019a-f; Singh et al., 2019a, b). The most widespread mycotoxin i.e., aflatoxins are of great concern in warm and humid climatic conditions like India (Singh et al., 2010). Swamy et al. (2012) found that South Asian feeds are contaminated with multiple mycotoxins, along with aflatoxin. Singh et al. (2011) reported that 90% of the maize samples were positive for AFB1 and the values ranged from non-detectable to 0.80 ppm, with an average of 0.14 ppm AFB1. Aflatoxin B1 toxicity in poultry causes lowered performance in terms of reduced body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency (Silambarasan et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2015a; Singh et al., 2016c), reduced nutrient utilization (Silambarasan et al., 2013), increased mortality (Khatke et al., 2012b; Sharma et al., 2014), anemia (Singh et al., 2015a; Singh et al., 2016c), hepatotoxicosis and haemorrhage (Churchil et al., 2014; Singh et al., 2015a; Singh et al., 2016c; Pathak et al., 2017), altered biochemistry (Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a). It impairs humoral and cellular immune responses in poultry and increases susceptibility to environmental and infectious agents (Khatke et al., 2012a; Singh, 2019a, b, e, f) leading to severe economic losses in the poultry industry. Liver, the major organ involved in nutrient metabolism and detoxifying toxic materials, is the target organ for aflatoxicosis because this is the site where most aflatoxins are bio-activated to the reactive 8, 9 epoxide form, which is capable of binding both DNA and proteins. Ochratoxins are also one of the most commonly occurring mycotoxins and is produced by several species of Aspergillus (Aspergillus ochraceus) and Penicillium (Penicillium verrucosum). Known ochratoxins in nature are Ochratoxin A (OTA), B (OTB), and C (OTC), but OTA is the most prevalent and toxic to animals and poultry (Patil et al., 2005, 2006, 2014, 2017a, b; Patial et al., 2013; Patil and Degloorkar, 2016a, b, 2018; Singh et al., 2019a, b). It causes a reduction in production performance viz. reduced growth rate, decreased feed consumption, poorer feed conversion and increased mortality (Singh et al., 2015b; Singh et al., 2016b; Singh et al., 2019a, b). Ochratoxin contamination at 200 ppb level in broiler diet led to decreased protein, haemoglobin and creatinine, while increased uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, AST and ALT levels in blood.

Moreover, ochratoxin impaired both cell mediated and humoral immunity (Singh et al., 2016a). OTA is absorbed in the small intestine at the proximal jejunum, and after resorption larger quantity of ochratoxin is found inside kidneys and liver. Inside the liver, ochratoxin A is hydrolysed to OT-α and L-phenylalanine. Primary effects are most probably concern with the influence of OTA on enzymes participating in the phenylalanine metabolism (phenylalanine-transferase, phenylalaninehydroxylase and phenylalanine-lipoperoxide). It also stimulates lipid peroxidation by forming complex with iron. OTA and iron complex produces highly toxic hydroxyl radicals in the presence of NADPH cytochrome of the P-450 reductase system. In these ways OTA induces degenerative changes in kidney and liver cells, as well as a decrease in the weights of the lymphoid organs (Stoev et al., 2002). Under field conditions, mycotoxicosis in poultry feed is most commonly caused by exposure to a group of mycotoxins, rather than exposure to purely individual mycotoxins. Different types of mycotoxins produced by a single or several fungal species may be occurring simultaneously on various agriculture commodities, thereby adding more potential risk of mixed mycotoxicosis. Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A are most common mycotoxins in poultry feed and have detrimental effects on both animal and poultry (IARC, 1993, Katole et al., 2013; Patel et al., 2015). The objective of the present investigation was to study the interactive effect of aflatoxin and ochratoxin on carcass traits and organ weights in broiler chickens.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1 Production and Analysis of Mycotoxins

Aflatoxin was produced by growing Aspergillus flavus NRRL 6513 on maize. This fungus was obtained from US Department of Agriculture, Illinois, USA. Fermentations were carried out in batches as per the method described by Shotwell et al. (1966). The extraction and estimation of aflatoxin was done as per the procedure of Pons et al. (1996). Aflatoxin contents were finally quantified using a UV spectrophotometer. Ochratoxin was produced as per the method described by Singh et al. (2013b) using Aspergillus westerdijkiae NRRL 3174. The extraction and estimation of ochratoxin B1 was done as per the procedure of AOAC (1995).

2.2 Experimental Design

Experimental design was completely randomized design. There were nine dietary treatments. Each dietary treatment had 4 replicates and each replicate had 8 chicks. The experiment was conducted in broiler chickens from day-old to 6 weeks of age. The various dietary treatments were prepared by mixing the required quantity of mycotoxins to get their desired concentration in basal diet (Table 1).

Table 1: Experimental groups and treatments

2.3 Biological Experiment and Analysis

Day-old broiler chicks were obtained from experimental hatchery, ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar. The chicks were wing banded, weighed individually and distributed randomly into nine treatment groups on equal weight basis. All birds were reared under standard management conditions from 0-6 weeks of age. All birds were fed with broiler starter ration for 1-21 days and broiler finisher ration from 22 to 42 days. The composition of broiler starter and finisher ration was as below: The starter diet with maize 53.93, soybean meal 42.70, limestone 0.9, dicalcium phosphate 1.70, common salt 1.30, DLmethionine 0.16, TM premix 0.10, vitamin premix 0.15, B complex 0.015, choline chloride 0.05; and finisher diet with maize 63.63, soybean meal 33.40, limestone 0.95, dicalcium phosphate 1.40, common salt 0.20, DL-methionine 0.11, TM premix 0.10, vitamin premix 0.15, B complex 0.015, choline chloride 0.05; were formulated. TM premix supplied Mg, 300; Mn, 55; I, 0.4; Fe, 56; Zn, 30; Cu, 4 mg/kg diet. Vitamin premix supplied Vit A, 8250 IU; Vit. D3, 1200 ICU; Vit. K, 1 mg; vitamin E 40 IU per kg diet. B complex supplied Vit. B1, 2 mg; Vit. B2, 4 mg; Vit. B12, 10 mcg; niacin, 60 mg; pantothenic acid, 10 mg; choline, 500 mg per kg diet. The starter diet contained 22.09% crude protein, 2,848 Kcal ME/kg, calcium 0.99%, available P 0.45%, lysine 1.27%, methionine 0.53% and threonine 1.01%. The corresponding values in finisher diet were 19.04%, 2,946 Kcal/kg, 0.90%, 0.38%, 1.05%, 0.44% and 0.87%. The protein as per AOAC (1995) and calcium contents as per Talapatra et al. (1940) were estimated, while the concentrations of lysine, methionine, threonine, available P and metabolizable energy values were calculated. After 42nd day of age, six birds of equal sex from each dietary treatment were selected as per body weight closer to mean for carcass studies. The birds were kept off feed for eight hours prior to slaughter but drinking water was offered to them. The carcass parameters viz. eviscerated weight, blood loss, cut-up part yields (breast, thigh, drumsticks, back, neck and wing) and yield of various organs (liver, heart, gizzard, bursa, spleen and kidney) were recorded and expressed as % live weight. All data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software package version 20.0 following one way analysis. All the observations were recorded at 95% (P≤0.05) level of significance.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1 Carcass Traits

3.1.1 Slaughter Traits

The data pertaining to slaughter traits (shrinkage loss, dressing yield and eviscerated yield) was statistically analyzed and presented in Table 2. The shrinkage loss, dressing yield and eviscerated yield in various dietary treatments varied from 4.19 (T1) to 5.35 (T9); 71.34 (T9) to 74.44 (T1) and 63.55 (T9) to 68.57 (T1) %, respectively. Mycotoxin contamination of diet did not result in any significant change in slaughter traits. There was no significant (P<0.05) difference among various dietary treatments with regard to shrinkage loss, dressing yield and eviscerated yield. The present study reported no significant (P<0.05) change in the shrinkage loss, dressing yield and eviscerated yield due to AFB1 and OTA contamination either alone or in combination in the diet of birds. Non significant effect on slaughter traits may be due to low levels of mycotoxin in the diet of broiler chickens. Khatke et al. (2012c); Silambarsan et al. (2015) also observed no significant change in slaughter traits (shrinkage loss, dressing yield and eviscerated yield) due to contamination of 300 ppb of AFB1 in diet. Contrary to this, Pasha et al. (2007) reported reduced dressing percent due to 100 ppb AFB1 contaminated diet. Churchill et al. (2009) reported reduced eviscerated yield due to feeding of aflatoxin contaminated diet. A reduction in eviscerated yield was also observed at AFB1 levels of 0.065 to 2.7 ppm by Doerr et al. (1983). Singh (2015); Singh et al. (2016d) also observed no significant difference in slaughter traits (shrinkage loss, dressing yield and eviscerated yield) due to ochratoxin contamination (150 to 200 ppb) in the diet of broiler chickens. The present study revealed that contamination of AFB1 or OTA alone or in combination at any level did not produce any significant alteration on slaughter traits of broiler chickens.

3.1.2 Cut-Up Parts

The average values of cut-up parts (thigh, drumstick, breast, back, neck and wing) expressed as per cent of pre-slaughter live weight, recorded at the end of sixth week of growth trial in various dietary treatments are presented in Table 3. The results of present investigation revealed that relative weights of thigh, drumstick, breast, back, neck and wing did not differ significantly (P<0.05) among various dietary treatments. The average values of thigh, drumstick, breast, back, neck and wing in various dietary treatments varied from 9.60 (T9) to 10.54 (T1), 9.93 (T9) to 10.56 (T1), 15.22 (T9) to 16.15 (T1), 14.72 (T9) to 18.63 (T1), 4.15 (T9) to 4.79 (T1) and 8.69 (T9) to 9.49 (T1) %, respectively. Contamination of either mycotoxins at any level alone or in combination, in the diet of broilers did not produce any significant (P<0.05) change on the cut-up parts of birds. The relative yield of cut-up parts recorded in various dietary treatments did not vary significantly (P<0.05) from that of control group (T1). The present investigation revealed that the relative weight of cut-up parts did not differ (P<0.05) among various dietary treatments. Mycotoxin contamination (either AFB1 or OTA alone or in combination) at any level did not produce any adverse effect on cut-up parts of broiler chickens. The present report was in agreement with earlier reports of Khatke et al. (2012c); Sharma (2013); Silambarsan et al. (2015). They also observed no significant difference in relative weights of cut-up parts due to AFB1 (250 to 300 ppb) contamination in diet of broiler chickens. Huff and Doerr (1981) reported that the cut-up parts yields were decreased with decrease in body weight and breast yield mainly decreased due to dietary contamination of aflatoxin.

Table 2: Slaughter traits (% live weight) as influenced by various dietary treatments 

Table 3: Cut up parts yield (% live weight) of broilers fed with different dietary treatments

Shamsudeen (2007) also reported that cut-up parts yield decreased with 0.5 to 1.0 ppm aflatoxin in the feed of broiler chickens. Singh (2015); Singh et al. (2016d) also observed no-significant difference due to feeding of ochratoxin in the diet of broiler chickens. They further reported that the non-significant difference due to feeding of ochratoxin may be due to low level of ochratoxin in the diet of broiler chickens.

3.2 Organ Weights

The data pertaining to relative organ weights (liver, gizzard, kidneys, bursa, spleen and heart) expressed as percent live weight was statistically analyzed and presented in Table 4.

3.2.1 Relative

Weights of Liver The relative weight of liver (percent body weight) for control group were 2.00% which was statistically similar to T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7. The relative weights of liver in group T8 and T9 was significantly higher than that of control. In groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 when AFB1 and OTA were administered individually, an increase in relative weights of liver was seen by 10.0, 11.5, 6.0 and 10.0%, respectively. However, in groups T6, T7, T8 and T9 during combine feeding of mycotoxin, an increase in relative weights of liver were recorded by 11.5, 16.5, 21.0 and 26.0%, respectively. The result showed that combine feeding of mycotoxin in groups T6, T7 and T8 exhibited an additive effect and in group T9 exhibited synergistic effect on relative weights of liver in broiler chickens. In the present study, numerical increase in the relative weights of liver was recorded in broiler given at 150 ppb or higher level of aflatoxin. Several research workers have reported increased liver weights when aflatoxin containing feed was fed (Singh et al., 2013a; Sharma et al., 2014). Raju and Devegowda (2000) also reported significantly increased relative weights of liver due to 300 ppb aflatoxin contaminated diet in broilers. Increased relative weights of liver due to aflatoxin contaminated feed were also reported by Kubena et al. (1993); Miazzo et al. (2000); Rosa et al. (2001). Further, the present study, revealed a numerical increase in the relative weights of liver due to 150 or 250 ppb OTA contamination of feed. This result was in agreement with those reported by Huff et al. (1992).

Table 4: Relative organ weights (% live weight) of broiler chicken fed with different dietary treatments

Stove et al. (2000); Stove et al. (2004); Singh et al. (2016c) also reported a significant increase in the relative weights of liver caused by 130, 300 and 800 ppb of ochratoxin contamination in the diet of broilers. Moreover, Raju and Devegowda (2000) also reported synergistic effect on liver weights in broilers fed aflatoxin (0.3 mg/kg) and ochratoxin (2 mg/kg) simultaneously.

3.2.2 Relative Weights of Gizzard

The relative weights of gizzard in control group (T1) were statistically similar to that of T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6. The relative weights of gizzard in treatment groups T7, T8 and T9 was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of control. The gizzard weights among groups T7, T8 and T9 were statistically similar. In groups T2 to T5, when the mycotoxin was administered individually, an increase in relative weights of gizzard was recorded by 8.43, 10.04, 12.58 and 14.05%, respectively. However, during combine feeding of both the mycotoxin in T6 to T9, an increase in gizzard weights were seen by 15.66, 19.67, 20.88 and 34.53%, respectively. In groups T6, T7 and T8, the increase was lower than the sum of increase caused by individual mycotoxins. Therefore, the results revealed that combine feeding of mycotoxin in groups T6, T7 and T8 resulted in additive effect and in group T9 synergistic effect on relative weights of gizzard in broiler chickens. In the present study, an increase in the relative weights of gizzard was reported at 150 (T2) or 300 ppb (T3) aflatoxin contamination. This result was in agreement with several reports wherein an increase in the relative weights of gizzard due to 0.3 to 5 ppm aflatoxin feeding was reported earlier (Kubena et al., 1993; Bailey et al., 1998; Sapcota et al., 2007; Singh et al., 2013a). The present study revealed that ochratoxin at 150 ppb (T4) or 250 ppb (T5) contamination of feed caused an increase in the relative weights of gizzard. Increase in relative weights of gizzard due to ochratoxin contamination in feed was earlier reported in several studies (Kubena et al., 1988; Huff et al., 1992). Raju and Devegowda (2000) reported 14.6% increase in relative weights of gizzard compared to that of control when 2 ppm ochratoxin contaminated feed was fed to broiler chicks from 1-35 days of age. Moreover, Raju and Devegowda (2000) also reported additive effect of AFB1 (0.3 ppm) and OTA (2 ppm) when both the mycotoxin was given simultaneously.

3.2.3 Relative Weights of Kidneys

The relative weights of kidneys in control group (T1) were 0.61%, which was statistically similar to that of T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7 and T8. The relative weights of kidneys in treatment group T9 was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of control. The results revealed that when AFB1 and OTA were fed individually in groups T2 to T5, an increase in relative weights of kidneys were observed by 9.83, 11.47, 16.39 and 21.31%, respectively. However, during combine feeding of both the mycotoxin in T6 to T9, an increase in relative weights of kidneys was seen by 18.03, 16.39, 14.75 and 31.14%, respectively. In groups T6, T7, T8 and T9, the increase was lower than the sum of increase caused by individual mycotoxins at respective concentration in feed. Therefore, the results revealed that combine feeding of mycotoxin in groups T6, T7 and T8 caused an additive effect and in group T9 synergistic effect on relative weight of kidney in broiler chickens. The present study revealed that there was an increase in the relative kidney weight at 150 ppb or 300 ppb AF contamination in feed. Increase in relative weights of kidneys due to aflatoxin contamination of feed at 0.3 to 5.0 ppm level was earlier reported by several research workers (Kubena et al., 1990, 1993; Bailey et al., 1998; Raju and Devegowda, 2000). In the present study, increase in the relative weights of kidneys at 150 ppb or 250 ppb OTA contamination in feed was recorded. Verma et al. (2004); Hanif et al. (2008) reported a significant increase in the relative weights of kidneys when broilers were fed with ochratoxin at a dietary level of 0.5, 1.2 and 4 ppm over 42 days period. Singh et al. (2015b); Singh (2015) also reported significant increase in relative weights of kidneys at OTA level of 200 µg/kg feed in broiler chicks. Moreover, Raju and Devegowda (2000) also reported additive effect of AFB1 (0.3 ppm) and OTA (2 ppm) on the relative weights of kidneys in broiler chickens when both the mycotoxin was given simultaneously.

3.2.4 Relative Weights of Bursa of Fabricius

The relative weights of bursa in control group (T1) was 0.21%, which was significantly (P<0.05) higher than all other treatment groups. The relative weights of bursa did not vary significantly (P<0.05) between groups T2 and T3; and T4 and T5. The relative weight of bursa was statistically similar among T6, T7 and T8. Significantly (P<0.05) lower weights of bursa was recorded in group T9 compared to all other treatment groups. The relative weights of bursa in group T2 and T3 was significantly (P<0.05) higher than T4, T5, T6, T7, T8 and T9. The relative weight of bursa in group T4 and T5 was significantly (P<0.05) higher than T7, T8 and T9. The results indicated that when AFB1 and OTA were fed individually in groups T2 to T5, decrease in relative weights of bursa was seen by 23.80, 28.57, 38.09 and 38.09%, respectively. However, during combine feeding of both the mycotoxin in T6 to T9, decreased bursal weights also seen by 42.85, 47.61, 47.61 and 57.14%, respectively. In groups T6 to T9, the decrease was lower than the sum of decrease caused by individual mycotoxins at respective concentration in feed. Therefore, combine feeding of mycotoxin in groups T6 to T9 caused an additive interaction of mycotoxins on relative weights of bursa in broiler chickens. The present study revealed that 150 ppb or 300 ppb AF level in diet of broilers resulted in significant (P<0.05) decrease in relative weights of bursa. Decrease in bursa relative weights due to AFB1 contamination of feed was also reported by Kubena et al. (1990); Singh et al. (2013a); Sharma et al. (2014). Several research workers reported a significant decrease in relative weights of bursa due to AFB1 contamination of feed in broilers (Chattopadhyay et al., 1985; Verma et al., 2004; Gopi, 2006; Khatke et al., 2012c). In the present study, 150 ppb or 250 ppb OTA concentration in the diet of broiler chickens caused a significant decrease in the relative weight of bursa. Significant decrease in the relative weight of bursa was earlier reported by Sakhare et al. (2007); Gupta et al. (2008); Singh et al. (2016d). Moreover, a significant reduction in the relative weights of bursa was also reported by Verma et al. (2004) when AFB1 and OTA were fed to broiler chickens simultaneously.

3.2.5 Relative Weights of Spleen

The relative weight of spleen in control group (T1) was 0.14%, which was significantly (P<0.05) lower than T7, T8 and T9. The relative weights of spleen among groups T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 did not vary significantly (P<0.05) and was statistically equal to that of control. The relative weights of spleen among groups T5, T6, T7 and T8 was statistically similar. The relative weights of spleen in T9 was 0.20% which was significantly (P<0.05) higher than any other treatment groups barring T7. When AFB1 and OTA were fed individually in groups T2 to T5, an increase in relative weights of spleen was noticed by 7.14, 14.28, 14.28 and 14.28%, respectively. Whereas, in combine feeding of two mycotoxins in groups T6 to T9, an increase in relative weights of spleen was seen by 21.42, 35.71, 28.57 and 42.85%, respectively. In T6, the increase in relative spleen weight was equal to the sum of increase caused by individual mycotoxin in group T2 and T4. Therefore, feeding 150ppb AFB1+150ppb OTA in combination caused additive interaction of mycotoxins on relative weights of spleen in broiler chickens. In groups T7, T8 and T9, the increase in relative weights of spleen was greater than the sum of increase caused by individual mycotoxins at their respective concentration. So, the result revealed that feeding of 150ppb AFB1+250ppb OTA (T7); 300ppb AFB1+150ppb OTA (T8) and 300ppb AFB1+250ppb OTA (T9) have synergistic interaction on mycotoxins on relative weights of spleen in broiler chickens. The present study reported an increase in the relative weights of spleen at 150 ppb or 300 ppb AFB1 contamination in feed. Khatke et al. (2012c); Sharma et al., 2014 also reported increased relative weights of spleen at 250 ppb and 300 ppb level of dietary aflatoxin, respectively. Significant increase in relative weights of spleen due to dietary aflatoxin content ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 ppm was also reported by earlier research (Kubena et al., 1990; Kubena et al., 1993; Bailey et al., 1998; Rosa et al., 2001). In the present study, numerical increase in the relative spleen weight was recorded due to dietary contamination of ochratoxin. Hatab (2003) also reported increased relative weights of spleen due to dietary OTA contamination. However, Hanif et al. (2008); Singh et al. (2015b) reported no effect on the relative weights of spleen due to OTA feeding in broiler chickens. Contrary to this, Stoev et al. (2000); Sakhare et al. (2007) reported a decrease in relative weights of spleen as a consequence of feeding OTA contaminated diet in broiler chickens.

3.2.6 Relative

Weights of Heart The relative weights of heart in control group (T1) was 0.47%, which was significantly (P<0.05) lower than T5, T8 and T9. The relative weights of heart in groups T2, T3, T4, T6 and T7 was statistically similar to that of control. The relative weights of heart among groups T1, T2, T3, T4, T6 and T7 was statistically similar. During individual feeding of AFB1 and OTA in groups T2 to T5, increase in relative weights of heart was observed by 2.12, 0.00, 6.38 and 12.76%, respectively. However, during combine feeding of both the mycotoxins, from groups T6 to T9, an increase in relative weights of heart were seen by 6.38, 10.63, 12.76 and 19.14%, respectively. In treatment groups T6 to T8, an increase in relative heart weight was lower than the sum of increase caused by individual mycotoxins at respective concentration in feed. In group T9, the increase in relative weights of heart was greater than the sum of increase caused by individual mycotoxin in groups T3 and T5. The result of present study revealed that feeding 150 ppb AFB1+150 ppb OTA (T6); 150 ppb AFB1+250 ppb OTA (T7) and 300 ppb AFB1+150 ppb OTA (T8) resulted in additive interaction, however, feeding 300 ppb AFB1+250 ppb OTA (T9) resulted in synergistic interaction of mycotoxins on relative weights of heart in broiler chickens. In the present study, aflatoxin feeding at 150 or 300 ppb levels did not produce significant increase in relative weights of heart. Contrary to this Kubena et al. (1990, 1993); Ledoux et al. (1999) reported significant increase in relative weights of heart due to AFB1 feeding at concentration ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 ppm. The non-significant increase in the relative weights of heart could be due to low level of AFB1 in the present study. Ochratoxin contamination in feed at 250 ppb level resulted significant (P<0.05) increase in the relative weights of heart. Moreover, Sreemannarayana et al. (1989) reported no effect on the relative weights of heart when fed OTA concentration ranging from 1 to 10 mg/kg. In contrast, Kubena et al. (1989) reported increased relative weights of heart fed OTA ranging from 2 to 4 mg/kg in the diet of broilers.

4. Conclusion

It was concluded that aflatoxin and ochratoxin either alone or in combination did not produce any significant effects on slaughter traits (shrinkage loss, dressing yield, eviscerated yield) or cut-up parts (thigh, drumstick, breast, back, neck and wing) yields. Combine feeding of aflatoxin and ochratoxin caused an additive or synergistic effect on relative organ weights in broiler chickens.

 

This article was originally published in Livestock Research International, April-June, 2019. Volume 07, Issue 02, Pages 88-97.

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