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Conditioning and Expansion Increases Nutritional Value of Soybean Expellers

Published on: 3/11/2021
Author/s : Markus Wiltafsky-Martin – Evonik Operations GmbH. Charmaine D. Espinosa, Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Illinois. Maryane S. Sespere Faria Oliveira, University of Illinois. Joseph Limbach, University of Illinois. Natalia Fanelli, University of Illinois. Hans H. Stein, Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois.
Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that different combinations of conditioning and expansion of soybean expellers increases nutritional value. Non-heat-treated soybean expellers (L-1) and soybean expellers conditioned for 60 s at 90ºC followed by expansion at 110ºC (L-2) were used. Two additional sources of soybean expellers (L-3 and L-4) were processed as L-2 with the exception that the initial conditioning was followed by long-term conditioning for 12 or 48 min at 100ºC before expansion. Analyzed trypsin inhibitor activity in L-1, L-2, L-3, and L-4 was 34.0, 23.1, 4.2, and 2.4 mg/g, respectively. In experiment 1, 10 cannulated barrows (54.22 ± 4.54 kg) were allotted to a replicated 5 × 4 Youden square with 5 diets and 4 periods and 8 replicates per diet. Each source of soybean expellers was included in one diet, and a N-free diet was also used. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the Mixed Procedure of SAS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of all amino acids (AA) in L-1 was less (P < 0.01) compared with L-2, L-3, and L-4 (Table 1), and SID of all AA in L-2 was less (P < 0.01) than in L-3 or L-4. In experiment 2, 40 barrows (17.52 ± 1.63 kg) were housed in metabolism crates and fed a corn diet or 4 diets based on corn and each source of soybean expellers. Feces and urine were collected using the marker-to-marker approach with 5-d adaptation and 4-d collection periods. Data were analyzed as in Exp. 1. The metabolizable energy (ME) in L-1 was less (P < 0.01) than in L-2, L-3, and L-4 (Table 1). In conclusion, the SID of AA in soybean expellers was maximized if 12 or 48 min of conditioning at 100ºC was used before expansion, but long-term conditioning did not increase ME.
Hans H. Stein is a professor of Animal Science at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, where he is conducting research and providing outreach programs in the area of intestinal physiology and feed ingredient evaluation. Previous jobs include positions as assistant and associate professor at South Dakota State University, jobs in the feed industry, and jobs in primary agricultural production. He obtained a PhD degree in monogastric nutrition from the University of Illinois, and a Masters degree from the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in Copenhagen, Denmark.
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