Degnala disease epidemic in buffaloes

Forum: Why Degnala disease epidemic in buffaloes throughout South East Asia this year?

Published on: 04/25/2012
Author/s : Dr. Kedar Karki, Senior Veterinary Officer, Central Veterinary Laboratory, Tripureshwor
Introduction Paddy harvesting, threshing and its storage are major agricultural activities in south Asia during the November.  Such rice straw is the major fodder for cattle and buffaloes during winter lean period. It´s a fact that rice production needs source of water supply for irrigation as water is indispensable throughout production period. The rice straw should be properly dried ...
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Dr Neelesh Sharma Dr Neelesh Sharma
Veterinary Doctor
April 25, 2012
Hi Dear Dr. Kedar
thanx for providing updated information, really its big problem particularly in rice fed area.
Reply
Dr.b.k.sharma Dr.b.k.sharma
Veterinary Doctor
April 25, 2012
Dear Dr.Kedar,
In Maharashtra and Gujarat paddy straw is fed extensively but this disease is not there.What could be the reason ? Could you please comment on this. Thanking you in anticipation.
Dr. B.K.Sharma
Reply
Dr. Karki Kedar Dr. Karki Kedar
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
April 26, 2012

Saprophyte that is fungus grow on decaying biomass they are fusarium,aspergillos,penicillium, when rice straw contaminated with these fungus when they metabolose in body thye produce mycotoxin in turn the toxin causes elastin fiber to elastinase,collagen fiber to cillgenese,keratin to keratinase. That's why there is drying and sloughing of extremity,chalk like powder coming from hoof.if not loosing body condition,drop in milk yield repeat breeding

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Dr Neelesh Sharma Dr Neelesh Sharma
Veterinary Doctor
April 26, 2012

Dear Dr. KK Sharma
You are right, as you know its Dignala is fungal disease, so only one factor is not 100% sure to cause disease. This problem starts when we storing rice paddy in high moisture for long time then Fusarium equisitti become grow. When we offer that paddy to animals, problem become starts. Favourable conditions are very important for the growth of fungus. Second point, the symptoms of Degnala are more or less similar to Selenium toxicity, so sometimes we confuse it with selenosis (with prominent hoof lesions). All are my personal experiences and views, although I am not expert of this field.

Reply
Khadak Bisht Khadak Bisht
Veterinary Doctor
April 26, 2012
Dear Dr K Karki

Can you please comment on the disease which is prevalent in few of the western districts of Nepal (Baitadi and Darchula). it must be a multiple agents involved in the cause of disease, as above suggested fungus and selenium.....very close to Degnala
Our scientists are found to be more bias to their professionals. I would suggest can you do a detail epidemiological investigation regarding this type of problems.

I think- the disease is common in South ASIA not in South east ASIA....
Thanks for providing the information
Reply
Subodh Kumar Subodh Kumar
Agriculturist
April 26, 2012
Does this disease restrict itself to only buffaloes? Do other animals such as cows, goats etc. have immunity against this disease?
Reply
Hailu Mazengia Yimam Hailu Mazengia Yimam
Associate Professor of Veterinary Pathology
April 26, 2012
Thank you so much!! It is very good information
Reply
Dr. Karki Kedar Dr. Karki Kedar
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
April 29, 2012

There are many query Dr.Bista khari in darchula baitadi till date finding indicate that it is choronic selenosis with combine mycotoxicosis. Furthermore it is what I call Nepales vet disease syndrome. No it does not restrict to buffaloes only. Although the name of diseaes is Degnala. I have mentioned about its history. Now I will say it is moldy straw, feed, fodder poisoning in livestock pig, poulty, sheep, goat too, and equine is more venerable, so far there are documentation about it like in cattle it causes Endemic Moist Examatous syndrome, goat Dhakeri Bange Syndrome. In finisher broiler Sudden Death Syndrome. In Early chicks Spiking mortality Syndrom. In Sheep Facial eczema,in equine spp Equine Lucko Encephalomalacia. In pig HBS.

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Dr. Karki Kedar Dr. Karki Kedar
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
May 2, 2012
Hypothesis regarding Khari is noot clear every year it is changing
Reply
May 6, 2012

Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) has carried out an extensive research on Khari diseases as referred to by Dr Bist in the western districts of Baitadi, and Drachula. In the early 2012, NARC has already handed over a complete package of practice to the Department of Livestock Services (DLS), Government of Nepal for preventing, control and treatment of the Khari Disease syndrome. Yes, it is a complex disease syndrome. So Khari is no more a mysterious disease as it used to be 20 years ago. It is a syndrome (rather than a disease) and the treatment has been effectively used at the field level in Baitadi and Drachula districts.

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Dr. Karki Kedar Dr. Karki Kedar
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
May 6, 2012
hypothesis is not clear tratment advice is not accepted by farmer,
Reply
Dr. Karki Kedar Dr. Karki Kedar
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
May 7, 2012
District gorkha t risk ,vets n livestock dev officer unawere
Reply
Laxman Ghimire Laxman Ghimire
Student
May 27, 2012
It is absoutely true what Dr. Kedar Karki said about Degnala disease in South Asian countries. I have also attended many cases in Chitwan district of Nepal. Do all fungus cause this disease? How can we differentiate it from Ergotism?
Reply
Drmuhammad Shafique Drmuhammad Shafique
Veterinary Doctor
November 6, 2012

I live and do veterinary practice and dairy consultancy in the degnala disease District Shekhupura, Pakistan. DEGNAL is a drain for water supply to the surronding area this area is richly peddy growing area. Peddy is winter season crop when high moisture is present giving excellent environment for fusarium growth this provide fodder to the buffaloes. Buffaloes are more prone to this disease. Petasulphate mixture is the drug of choice for this problem.

Reply
Pavan Kumar Pavan Kumar
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
August 10, 2013
How to differentiate clinically degnala with dermatophilosis which shows similar lesions
Reply
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