Respiratory Disease in Dairy Calves

Forum: Respiratory Disease in Young Dairy Calves

Published on: 08/08/2012
Author/s : Alvaro Garcia, Extension dairy specialist, Russ Daly, Dvm, Dacvpm, Extension veterinarian (South Dakota State University)
Respiratory disease is the second leading cause of death losses (scours is the first) in un-weaned heifer calves. Respiratory problems have increased by 34 percent in the last 20 years, causing nearly 21 percent of all newborn calf losses (NAHMS 2007). Heifers that survive continue to perform poorly as adult cows. In order to prevent this costly problem, it is important to address both determinant...
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August 8, 2012

Thanks Mr.Garcia and Mr. Daly;
Very succesful cover of calf respiratory disase in Young Dairy Calves, and very practical information you provide for dairymen..

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Dr.shahzad  Naveed Jadoon Dr.shahzad Naveed Jadoon
Animal Nutritionist
August 8, 2012

Great piece of information. I am wondering following information:

- what is effect of prebiotic during dry period and affect on colostrum.( immunity) in Young Dairy Calves
- what is drug of choice during respiratory syndrome condition
- Do enirnomentally control has affect on respiratory incidents.

Thank you for sharing such information.

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August 9, 2012
In response to your questions:
- I have seen research to indicate that feeding certain probiotics (MOS) products does provide improvements in colostrum quality (antibody content)
- The best antibiotics to use in respiratory cases in young calves varies from farm to farm, from veterinary clinic to veterinary clinic, and even over time on the same operation. In general, drugs such as enrofloxacin, tilmicosin, florfenicol, tulathromycin, and gamithromycin are considered top choices when treating clinically ill calves.
- control of the environment has a tremendous effect on the incidence of respiratory disease. Providing enough ventilation in barns, decreasing humidity, and providing deep bedding for young calves during colder conditions is very important.

Thanks, Russ Daly DVM
Reply
Abdulhadi Basaran Abdulhadi Basaran
Veterinary Doctor
August 10, 2012
Dear, A. Garcia and R. Daly
The work is very good, I want to thank you, but, there are some deficiencies in it, according to me.
These are;
1-As you inspected the article to be whole; there is not uniformity in terms of temperature and weight units.
2- Amount of the colostrums given to calves within 1 hour of birth is too much, because of the abomasums capacity of newborn calf.
3-Bovine Leucopoenia virus have to consider besides of Johne’s disease (Para tuberculosis), when pooling colostrums, as the diseases transmitted from cow to calf by feeding colostrums.
4-Temperature degree of colostrums and feeding conditions could be presented the article.
5-The calves under 4 months old may be vaccined but, should be noted that the effects of the maternal antibodies received in the colostrums.
Best wishes.
Dr.Abdulhadi Basaran
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary
Reply
August 11, 2012
Very good comments! in response,
- it is not uncommon for many dairies we work with to feed that much colostrum that early to calves. Often times these are larger Holstein calves that may have a higher capacity than other breeds. But always remember that the sooner colostrum is delivered, the better absorption of antibodies.
- You are very correct about pooling colostrum and disease transmission. If BLV or Johne's is an issue on certain farms, pooling is not a good choice. Good quality colostrum from a single cow then becomes the source of choice.
- Colostrum (and any milk product) is best served to the calf at a temperature as near their normal body temperature as possible (102 F or 38-39 C).
- Vaccinating young calves is the subject of some very interesting new research. With certain vaccines (MLV, intranasal, and some killed vaccines) and certain antigens, it now appears that calves are protected from future challenge to those diseases even though they may not produce a significant antibody response. (See Zimmerman, et al, JAVMA June 2006, Vol. 228, No. 11: 1757-1761.
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Subodh Kumar Subodh Kumar
Agriculturist
September 11, 2012

All techniques that involve cryogenic low and not so low temperatures in handling of Semen, and Collustrum etc. have a built in susceptibility to prpagate these diseases.
The best alternatives are - Natural Breeding and direct feedingof Collustum to new borns.
These diseases are unavoidable in modern Dairy techniques of mass production.' SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL '

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