Drinking Water Quality in Poultry

Drinking Water Quality in Poultry. Dr. Susan Watkins (University of Arkansas)

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Rashid Mahmood Rashid Mahmood
MSc Agriculture Entomology ,MBA Marketing
June 24, 2015

Ozone for the Purification of Poultry Drinking Water
Report 1009527
Date Published Apr 2004
Details: 1009527 Final Report - Available On-line


As in any livestock industry, chickens require a clean and uncontaminated source of drinking water to make maximum daily gains and maintain flock health. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using ozone and filtration to treat well water for a typical broiler unit in Neshoba County, Mississippi.


Broiler production in Mississippi began in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Today Mississippi is the fourth largest broiler producing state in the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture - National Agricultural Statistics Service, Mississippi production in 2002 was 769,500,000 birds producing over four billion pounds of products valued at slightly over 1.2 billion dollars. Poultry is the largest agricultural commodity in the state. Once a farmer contracts with a processor and builds his buildings, he can expect to be paid 18-24 cents for each bird that is accepted and processed. From this payment the farmer must pay all fixed and variable production costs while the broilers are on his farm. All of the farmer's costs should be minimized while a high quality product is produced. Minimizing water costs is one mechanism that can save a considerable dollar amount per year without impacting product quality. The amount of water utilized by a flock of broilers is dependent on bird size and the evaporative cooling needs to keep the house at a temperature for optimum growth and production. Most poultry integrators require a dependable and clean water supply that provides at least 15 gallons of water per minute for a 25,000-bird broiler house. Many growers have six broiler houses on their farm. The needed water for a six-house production unit is a minimum of 130,000 gallons per day. Utilizing municipal water supplies to satisfy these water needs costs approximately $1,800/month. Drilling and maintaining a 90-gallon per minute well and providing water treatment is much less


To demonstrate the feasibility of using ozone and filtration to treat well water for a six-house broiler unit in Neshoba County, Mississippi; to determine the feasibility of installing additional wells and water treatment for broiler production.


Steve Cumberland operates six broiler houses at his farm in Neshoba County, Mississippi, using water from a well outfitted with a two-horsepower pump capable of providing 30 gallons of water per minute. Before this study, the well water contained iron, manganese, and sulfides at levels higher than those recommended for safe drinking water. The research team installed a 32-gram per hour ozone generator with three filtration tanks at the farm with filtration tanks timed to expel precipated iron, manganese, and sulfate compounds at night. The team compared the performance of the Cumberland system before and after ozonation, including data on mortality percentages, average weight of finished broilers, pounds of feed per pound of gain, average daily gain, and total condemned birds at processing. Results were also compared with average data from other local farms working with the same integrator, Peco Farms, LLC.


Key results of this study include the following: • The ozonation of the well water did not greatly change the production data for the Cumberland Farms operation. • Feed conversion was constant over the study and consistent with the feed conversion for all farmers producing for Peco Farms, LLC. • Total condemned birds dropped slightly. • Emitter fouling due to precipitants decreased. • Variable costs for water decreased by nearly $20,000 for the six houses. Based on this study, Steve Cumberland indicated he would drill an additional well or wells and use ozonation to treat the water for the poultry houses.

EPRI Perspective

EPRI Global is a leader in the application of ozone in agriculture and food processing. The treatment of well water for use as drinking water for livestock and poultry is one of many ozone demonstration programs conducted by the EPRI Global Team in conjunction with their utility partners. Other demonstrations include using ozone in flour milling, ozone treatments in aquaculture tanks, ozone treatment of poultry chiller water, ozone in drip irrigation systems, and ozone applications in catfish processing.


2004 Program 014.0 Municipal Water and Industrial Wastewater


Ozone Wells Livestock Water Treatment Agriculture Filtration

Other KeyWords

Broiler Production Iron Removal Manganese Removal Poultry Feed Conversion Poultry Mortality Poultry Production Sulfide Removal Well Water Mississippi Water Sources

Sataluri Satagopa Raja Ayyangar Sataluri Satagopa Raja Ayyangar
B .Sc ( Mathematics , Physics and Chemistry ) ; P G Diploma in Environmental Studies ; P G Diploma in Industrial Pollution Management ; Industrial Chemistry ( B I E T )
June 26, 2015
In olden days in India people used water for drinking purpose by keeping the fresh water in pure Copper vessel for some hours to decontaminate the water .Instead of adding chemicals and poisoning the water it
is better to think of echo free ideas .
Rashid Mahmood Rashid Mahmood
MSc Agriculture Entomology ,MBA Marketing
June 26, 2015
True , but the problem is we are not sincere with the one from where we generate a lot of money that is the end user , i believe if we give the end user better and cheaper ways to generate money by increasing its productivity, our business will grow with them its just a matter of thinking that way not saying them as business partners but proving them and helping them if we call ourselves as technical experts........!!!
Veterinary Doctor
June 26, 2015
Ozonization of Water to Poultry is Best

But Should have regular Flushing of Pipelines with Water Dis Infectatnts Aquamax
at Prescribed Dose-to Avoid Bioflim Formation.

Dr K SenthilKumar
Manager Technical Service
Venkys India Ltd - VBD.
Alovsat Alovsat
Project Manager
November 10, 2019
Hello Dr K SenthilKumar.I want to apply ozonated water in poultry farming.How to contact you.There are many questions.Thanks.
June 27, 2015
We can not flush the pipelines on daily basis
June 28, 2015
I agree with Mr Rashid and Dr K SenthilKumar, novel applications should be sustainable, adoptable and multi purpose.

We have developed antibiotic-free POP for broiler and layer poultry. It reduces FCR, mortality and produces harder litter to avoid ammonia generation.

Moreover, our bio-film removal product Aquachil is edible. It is once a week application through feed water tank, which removes bio-film from tank, pipelines, drippers etc.

Overall cost of package is less than 3% of total cost of poultry farming, which is saved in terms of better FCR and lower mortality.

Vipul Chaturvedi
M. D.
Innovative Eco-Care Pvt Ltd,
Ahmedabad, India
Rashid Mahmood Rashid Mahmood
MSc Agriculture Entomology ,MBA Marketing
June 29, 2015
Sodium metabisulfite or sodium pyrosulfite (IUPAC spelling; Br. E. sodium metabisulphite or sodium pyrosulphite) is an inorganic compound of chemical formula Na2S2O5 can be used for tank and line cleaning once in a month , the procedure is, that you will have to make a close loop of water lines, its very easy and can be done with rubber flexible pipe and run this 1%-2% solution of Sodium metabisulphate atleast for half an hour and then drain it, this solution is a strong reductant , need more satisfaction you can run 1% -2% citric acid solution the same way for half an hour its simple and cheapest way for cleaning lines and its accessories

Rashid Mahmood
Sales Manager
Animal Farming Line
Muyang Holdings
July 1, 2015
It’s refreshing to see the sharing of information from the comments in this forum, regarding suggestions for treatment of Poultry Drinking Water.

I concur with Dr Ali’s comments regarding Ozone treatment, and that Chlorine Dioxide Cl02 and chlorinated water with chlorine are found much for effective. My experience in the field working with and assisting many different companies and poultry growers, both in the US and internationally, have found that Chlorinated water is still the least expensive effective application.

However, as Dr. Ali mentioned, is highly dependent on the proper pH and ORP, to insure the chlorine is being converted from Hypochlorite ions to Hypochlorous acid. Unfortunately, Hypochlorous acid is a weak acid and tends to undergo partial disassociation, where pH is critical in determining the direction of its equilibrium. The lower the pH, the more HOCl is formed, and the greater the germicidal effect. Ie: Treated water at a pH of 8 only has 27.69% Hypochlorous Acid, (bacteria killing power) in its solution, and with a solution of a pH of 6, rises to a highly effective 97.45% Hypochlorous Acid solution. This is done with an acidulant being added to the solution to lower the pH and raise the ORP to 600+ (mV), for optimum results.

I am open to share a Power Point Presentation with anyone, with more detailed information on this subject. Just drop me an email, and I’ll forward it to you to review. llhotta@acsproductinfo.com

We utilize a unique inorganic ion blend acid formula to lower the pH, called Acidic Calcium Sulfate, aka LpH 100, and previously marketed as FreshFlo 100. This is a USDA Approved Kosher food ingredient/pH adjuster & animal drinking water acidulant. Its a liquid concentrate requiring no mixing, at a pH less than 1, but is safe to handle, unlike other harsh acids, and is cost effective. Has NO organoleptic issues. Therefore, it doesn’t have any off-taste or odors, allowing the poultry to readily consume the water. It is also safe near human drinking water wells. The presentation available also explains this chemistry and shows graphs of the pH and ORP relationship to HOCl, and a parts of an analysis from Dr. Susan Watkins on Various Water pH on Chick Grow Out, using Acidic Calcium Sulfate, aka FreshFlo/LpH 100.

However, as Dr. Ali also pointed out, although more expensive to use, Chlorine Dioxide is very effective, and have many more benefits over chlorinate water, and can be utilized in countries where chlorine is not. And as Rashid Mamood commented, that Ozone needs to be precise, and perhaps too technical for smaller operations. Whereas, a simple 2 product, non-electric, hands free, cost efficient, Automatic Activations Non Electric (AANE) delivery system, would be a great solution. ClO2 is not corrosive like chlorine and is not highly dependent on pH.

However, an acid is necessary to activate the Sodium Chlorite, as directed on labels of EPA registered products, such as ProOxine from BioCide International and Anthium Dioxide from DuPont. Both companies have tested and supported the use of Acidic Calcium Sulfate as the Activator for Sodium Chlorite, to produce Chlorine Dioxide ClO2 for optimum results. Best Veterinary Solutions, a distributor of ProOxine, provides a sanitation program for its customers, and has tested many acidulants for over a year, and found that Acidic Calcium Sulfate (ACS) is the activator of choice, with the most added benefits, such as removing Biofilm Slime and maintain clear poultry water drinking nipples and drinking water lines, with no taste or odor issues. I have a copy of their detailed study also available for review, which is very informative, but much too long to add to these already lengthy comments. Please contact me by email to request same at llhotta@ACSProductInfo.com, or for any other additional studies I can share.

Larry L'Hotta, Application Specialist/MBA Marketing
ACS Technology Inc. Web: acsproductinfo.com

Huang Fei Co., Ltd. Huang Fei Co., Ltd.
Executive Director
July 19, 2015
The pH,ORP and chlorine level reading can be used to determine the best management practices required for poultry drinking water.
In 1972, the World Health Organization adopted an orp standard for drinking water disinfection of 650mV is active enough to destroy harmful organisms almost instantaneously.
Dosing the required volume of the Acidic Calcium Sulfate (ACS) and the Sodium Hypochlorite by auto pump to the water tank, so that the water orp has more than 650mV, it can kill bacteris in the water and remove biofilms.
After several years of experience with this method inTaiwan, the chicken is very healthy gut during feeding.
Almost without the use of antibiotics.
kevin Tsai kevintsai@gmail.com
October 8, 2015
Thank you very much for this valuable information.
Dr.hayman Egypt
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