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Mycotoxins diagnosis -Carlos Mallman

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February 15, 2019

Does Aflatoxins arise when feed is not properly dry?

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Carlos A. Mallmann Carlos A. Mallmann
Veterinary Doctor
July 8, 2019
Dear Mr Clement
As in the answer above, sorry for not responding.
The only thing that ensures mycotoxins do not form is to keep feed at a water activity (Aw) below 0.7. Any food/feed will be safe that way.
Best regards
Reply
December 3, 2019

Dear Carlos,

Can you provide more insights on how NIR technology helps in screening Mycotoxins in feeds ex. Poultry?

Reply
Carlos A. Mallmann Carlos A. Mallmann
Veterinary Doctor
January 2, 2020
Sear Suresh Kumar BV
Unfortunately not. The system only works for raw materials. The curves for the main mycotoxins (Aflatoxins, Zearalenone, Fumonisins and Deoxynivalenol) are operational on corn, wheat, wheat bran and barley. Importantly, the system is designed to calculate the Mycotoxin Risk with interpretations for poultry and pigs.
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January 2, 2020

Is there any cheap farmer friendly, hand held tool or equipment for on site mycotoxin analysis?
Please advise.

Reply
Carlos A. Mallmann Carlos A. Mallmann
Veterinary Doctor
January 2, 2020
Dear Stephen Fapohunda
Yes. The system is absolutely simple. You just need familiarity with reading in NIRS. Upload to the site. Wait a few minutes. Results interpreted on Mycotoxin Risk charts.
Best regards
Reply
Jonathan Tarus Jonathan Tarus
Student
January 3, 2020

The best way is to achieve an efficient, effective and cheaper way of mycotoxin diagnosis like litmus paper testing of alkalinity and acidity. Is there a method that works like this? Thanks

Reply
Carlos A. Mallmann Carlos A. Mallmann
Veterinary Doctor
January 3, 2020
Jonathan Tarus
It's another system. Enter in https://www.pegasusscience.com/site/us/ than you can see more details of the process. It's very simple!
Reply
Aoun Khan Aoun Khan
general manager production
January 3, 2020
Any simple method to know the mycotoxins in finished feed
Reply
Jonathan Tarus Jonathan Tarus
Student
January 3, 2020

Aoun Khan
Yes, I meant a simple method to be used in the diagnosis of mycotoxins in feeds (finished & unfinished) and poultry products.

Reply
Aoun Khan Aoun Khan
general manager production
January 3, 2020

What is Water activity means, sir?

Reply
Carlos A. Mallmann Carlos A. Mallmann
Veterinary Doctor
January 3, 2020

Aoun Khan
Water activity represents free water for growth of microorganisms. It goes from 0 to 1 (pure water). From 0.7 already has some microorganisms that can grow, so keeping below that eliminates the risk. This goes for any food/feed.

Reply
Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
January 3, 2020
I think it is not the Mycotoxins that replicate themselves, or form themselves,but the various fungi or Mycelium which produce them
it is the fungi that requires conducive environment to produce myco toxins and various fungi produce peculiar, or multiple myco toxins that ranges from Aflatoxin to Fuminoxin DON and Zearalinone etc
The conducive factors for these fungi must include appropriate substrate like corn ,soya,Groundnut,wheat etc on which they require to grow,Water content in the substrate above the standard, or if the storage environment is damp, and if temperature is increasing ,all these form ideal environment for fungi to grow and produce toxins
it is interesting to note that the higher the heat in the environment where these fungi substrate are kept, the higher the mycotoxin quantity that will be produced ,and this
is why more quantity of toxins are been produced as a result of climate change
climate change is characterized with all features that promote the secretion of toxins by feed or raw material contaminated fungi, as climate change produce flood drought, heat which are all conducive for the secretion and spread of toxins
quick check qualitative test for mycotoxin at farm gate is absolutely necessary and needed at farm gate level for fast decision by farmers,however quantitative test that can determine levels of toxin in raw materials and feed is a necessary tool for decision making on if toxin bindrs will be required to mitigate excess mycotoxins in livestock feed
Livestock industry foundation for Africa had since recognised a significant knowledge skill gap not only among farmers but also among many livestock professionals on mycotoxin production identification and appropriate mitigation in the humid tropical climate,LIFA has concluded in many of her farmers training onmycotoxin which is one of her initiative for advocacy that mycotoxinis the most health critical challanges of livestock that must be thoroughly understood and fully managed
Mycotoxin affect all prooduction and profitability indexes in poultry management ,in feeding,immunology,Vaccination successes,weight attainment,feed conversion and the cost of medication in a oultry project ,and we have come up with our slogan of "FAIL IN MYCOTOXIN MANAGEMENT AND FAIL IN ALL" It is in view of the above that livestock industry foundation for Africa is vigorously driving her knowledge sharing advocacy on creating more awareness in Nigeria now and in Africa countris soon on the wholistic management of mycotoxin risks in poultry production.We are currently partnered by ALPHA INITIATIVES (A subsidiary of Bill and

Melinda foundation) in Nigeria to create more awareness on the implications of mycotoxin on Vaccination failures,and multiple antibiotic infections in poultry projects in Nigeria
To follow up on most of our recent activities on mycotoxin training in West Africa follow the link below
https;//blog.lifango.org
interested collaborators to contact soavet@yahoo.com attention Dr Stephen Adejoro







Reply
Carlos A. Mallmann Carlos A. Mallmann
Veterinary Doctor
January 3, 2020

Stephen Adejoro Dr
Your approach is pertinent. We are more than 30 years involved in this at our university. In this period more than 1.5 million analyzes were carried out officially, either to control imports or companies involved with food/feed production. Our experience has led us to create mitigation systems for animal production such as Mycotoxin Risk calculation based on factors for each species/toxin and others. Evidently, experimental animal models were used.
This has enabled the creation of protocols for the evaluation of Antimicotoxin Additives, which is the only economical way to get rid of the problem when the toxin is already formed. Most of these products definitely do not work. For this reason, this assessment had to be created to protect populations and animals.

Reply
Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
January 4, 2020
Thank you for your contribution to knowledge livestock industry foundation for Africa (www.lifango.org) is interested in promoting new discoveries on mycotoxins mitigations in the South Sahara Africa
Follow many of our knowledge sharing activities in the link below
https://blog.lifango.org

Reply
Mr.Guo Mr.Guo
Veterinary Doctor
January 15, 2020
Carlos
What type of mycotoxin adsorbent is more effective?
Reply
Carlos A. Mallmann Carlos A. Mallmann
Veterinary Doctor
January 26, 2020

Mr. Guo.
This depends on several factors. First, the toxin that contaminates the material. Depending on what we find, the adsorbent is used. The clearest example is that of Aluminosilicates for Aflatoxins. There are many that work very well.
Thus, saying which is the best is not possible. A product that "works" for all mycotoxins may look better, but the active ingredients are diluted when a toxin is present in high concentrations, losing its efficiency.
It has many examples. A product that is effective for Zearalenone has no strong indication for male pigs or poultry and so on.
But important, after evaluating more than 1,000 products, it is that the product proves its efficiency in vivo. In vitro evaluations do not have much correlation with the protective effect in animals. I’ve taught this for the past 20 years.

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