Diseases are produced by micro-organisms which are universal and single organisms reproduce and multiply number of times. Disease incidences are higher in old and densely populated poultry farms.
Bio-security is of immense help to reduce disease hazards and improve health and productivity of birds. Optimum and profitable poultry production can be achieved by reducing disease risk to minimum extent. Bio-security literally means safety to living things- “bio” refers to ‘life ‘and “security” means ‘protection’.
Bio-security refers to the measures and methods adopted to secure a disease free environment for profitability of farm. It is reducing the chances of infections agents from coming into contact with poultry thus protecting the flock from infectious agents such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites.
- Prevention of the entry of pathogenic organism into poultry premises.
- Reduction of microbial contamination of the surrounding area.
- Total elimination of the pathogenic organisms present within the premises.
BENEFITS OF BIOSECURITY INCLUDE:
- Helps keep out diseases
- Reduces the risks
- Limits the spread of disease
- Improves overall health of the flock
- Reduces mortality losses
- Improves profitability
DEVELOPING A BIOSECURITY PLAN, CONSIDER THE FIVE W’S:
- Who is on your farm?
- What is brought on to your farm?
- When are they there?
- Where have they been?
- Why are they there?
STEPS OF BIO-SECURITY:
There are three steps of bio-security:
- Conceptual Bio-security
- Structural Bio-security
- Operational Bio-security
1. Conceptual Bio-security
a) Location of farm in relation to concentration of poultry of same or different species.
b) Distance among farms ,hatcheries, processing/packing units
c) Connectivity with roads
d) Proximity of water supply.
2. Structural Bio-security
a) Fencing of farm to avert trespass.
b) Secure housing with suitable bird and rodent proofing, concrete floors ,correct positioning of exhaust fans to prevent air borne diseases ,proper ventilation and drainage facility.
c) Water supply to farm free from pathogens and chlorinated( 2ppm)
d) Farm comprising of office ,storage and change room shower facilities.
e) Proper water and power supply to perform operations of decontamination of vehicles entering the farm. With all clean weather roads to prevent dissemination of disease agents by vehicles and footwear.
f) Installation of bins for pests free storage of bagged feed. Separate storage unit for feed, litter and equipment away from live flock.
g) Installation for disposal of dead birds
3. Operational Bio-security
a) Development of operational manuals for routine procedures in farms.
b) Decontamination and disinfection of units following depletion of flocks.
c) Adoption of specific procedures on entry of farm managers, supervisors, authorized visitors, employees or their exit.
d) Strict controls for prevention of contact with exotic and backyard poultry.
e) Proper vaccination.
- Security fencing
- Farm sheds
- Human traffic
- Rodent and wild birds control
- Restricting movement of vehicles
- Water, Feed
- Health monitoring
- Method of rearing
- Cleaning and disinfection
- Destruction of insects, lies, ice etc
- Dispose off dead and sick birds
- Personal hygiene of workers
- Other management procedures
- Isolation of poultry farm from other poultry reduces the risk of infection
- Cross infection between farms is reduced at least up to 50% if a barrier of 5km is there.(Practically, isolation is more difficult because of the cost of transportation, feed, egg, bird and supply labour).
2. SECURITY FENCING
- Fencing of farm is very important in restriction of entry of natural predators like jackel, ox, and wolf for security and to protect from theft.
- Footh bath at the point of entry into each poultry farm will help in disinfection to a great extent.
- Showering in and showering out, that is staff, visitors and vehicles have no other entry to farm other than the shower system.
3. FARM AND SHED
- Batch interval before introduction of new flock (15 days to 1 month)
- Concrete floor for proper and easy cleaning.
- Clean thoroughly disinfect with a suitable detergent and disinfectant
- Proper curtains to protect the flock from extreme climatic conditions and rain water entry with adequate ventilation
- Knowledge of prevention of disease and to check bacterial load from microbiology laboratory
- Plant trees not fruit trees and do not allow grasses or weeds to grow around shed put gravel in between sheds.
- Distance between 2 different sheds of same type is 30 feet and different type is 100 ft and poultry house to hatchery is 500 feet.
- Construct proper drainage system
4. HUMAN TRAFFIC
- Control of human traffic including regular workers, visiting service man particularly weekend veterinarian, who may visit several site in successive.
- Do not allow any visitor except on special circumstances like veterinarian.
- If possible the visitor should be covering all even boots ;supplied by the farm and disinfected after use.
- Record of all visitors to site with name, date of visit, nature of business is must.
- Staff and visitors having no other entry to the farm other than shower system
- Keep visitors to a minimum
Human transportation of disease-causing organisms is one of the more serious threats to biosecurity.
- Post signs at the entrance to the farm indicating that entry to the farm and facilities are restricted.
- Lock buildings
- Do not be afraid to ask any visitors where they have been. They should not have been on a poultry farm within 48 hours before visiting yours.
- Owner should restrict visitors and make sure that any visitor to their farm has a good reason to be there. Visitors should never enter poultry houses unless approved by the farm personnel.
- Protective covering such as boots, coveralls, and headgear to any visitors that work with, or have had recent contact with poultry .
- Traffic through poultry houses should always flow from younger to older birds.
- Keep records of visitors that have been on the farm. If a problem arises, knowing who was there will help in limiting additional flock infections.
5. RESTRICTING MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES
- Transport vehicles enter various farms regularly and are at great risk of infections. So, allow vehicles only when necessary.
- Avoid the entry of feed truck in premises by holding feed tank at the farm and then distribute to individual houses.
- Use of detergent and disinfectant outside and inside the drivers’ compartment. Sanitizing the trucks as they enter the farm by disinfectants.
6. RODENT AND WILD BIRD CONTROL
- Rats and rodents are great disease spreaders and have to be controlled and eradicated
- Make the shed rodent proof.
- Wild birds have potential of carrying infectious organisms restrict their entry to farm.
- Do not throw away organic material like dead birds, meat used food, feed etc around the shed which attracts crows etc.
- No litter should be around the shed and should be transported away from shed.
- Control movement of all animals in the farm including dogs.
- Entry of equipments from farm to farm only after they are disinfected.
- Egg flats from farm to hatchery must be sanitized at hatchery.
- Entry and exist of egg flats into the farm and outside farm must be restricted.
- Disinfect the feeder and waterer.
8. WATER AND FEED
- Water is a potent disease spreading and vector for bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, thus must be examined chemically as well as biologically for contamination at least twice a year.
- Feed acts as a vector for micro-organisms
- Storage of excess feed must be avoided.
- Store in feed room above the ground and away from walls.
- Lumps in feeds must be discarded.
- Feed tanks must be swept every month, disinfected twice in month and fumigated at end of each crop of birds to reduce bacterial count and mold growth. Mould inhibitors can be used.
- Check feed for toxins such as aflatoxins etc.Heat treatment is helpful as it does not affect the nutritional quality.
9. HEALTH MONITORING
1) Recognizing sick broilers
3) Maintain records
1) RECOGNIZING SICK BROILERS:
It is important to recognize sick birds. It is simple to check flock for dead birds but it requires skill to recognize sick birds. When walking through a flock, take time to scan the birds and spot individuals showing signs of illness, such as:
- Lethargy, lack of energy, drooping wings
- Loss of appetite
- Swelling of the head, eyes, comb, wattles and hocks
- Purple discoloration of the wattles, combs and legs
- Nasal discharge
- Coughing, wheezing, or sneezing
- Lack of coordination or complete paralysis
- Muscle tremors or twisted necks
- Sudden or excessive mortality without clinical signs
- Decreased egg production, soft-shelled or misshapen eggs for broiler.
- Abnormal respiratory sounds, of called a ‘snick’ can be heard. These sounds may have a variety of characteristics such as a high-pitched ‘squeak’, a sudden’ chuck’ sound, like a cough, or a gurgling or rattling sound.
3) MAINTAIN RECORDS:
i. Egg product
ii. Feed and water intake
iii. Mortality and Morbibity
iv. Entry and exist of outsiders
v. Parasites external and internal
a) FLOCK MORTALITY RECORDS will alert the producer of a potential problem, which should trigger the appropriate response and the first of which will be to find the cause of the problem.
b) PRODUCTION RECORDS
A producer keep daily feed and production record which helps to check for drop in egg production or feed consumption, or a rise or fall in water consumption and it aware the producer to a potential problem. A drop in feed or water consumption can be a sign of an infectious disease.
A significant drop in consumption must be checked and specific diagnostic actions taken. It included investigations of the watering or feeding system to make sure that a failure in the supply has not resulted in the consumption drop. In absence of physical reason diagnostic procedures should be followed such as collection of feed and water samples.
A drop in egg production or fertility may be an indication of infectious disease. Such drops should be investigated and diagnostic. Veterinarian advice is must.
10. METHOD OF REARING
- All in all out system: Only one age group of birds on a farm and farm is populated at one single time.
- Depopulating the farm reduces the major disease threat.
11. CLEANING, WASHING AND DISINFECTTION
- Proper cleaning and washing along with use of disinfectant after removal of litter and organic debris works best.
- Washing at pressure range of 300-600 psi.
- No disinfectant should be applied in water above 50o C
- At each 3oC drop in temperature below 17 o C effectiveness of disinfectant is halved.
- Keep areas around houses and feed bins clean
12. DESTRUCTION OF INSECTS, FLIES, LICE ETC
- Insects, flies, lice etc act as carrier of organisms.
- Spraying insecticide should before all other cleaning functions.
- Destroy flies with pesticides spraying or baiting, sprinkle bleaching powder for 5ft around the shed when there are flies. Pesticides (0.05% of sumicidin) for lice infestation.
13. DISPOSAL OF DEAD AND SICK BIRDS
- Disposal of birds by burying or incineration.
- Isolation and culling of diseased or sick birds.
14. PERSONAL HYGIENE OF WORKER
- Use of clean and separate clothing meant for farm premises only.
- Hand sanitizers and cleaning tubs must all time be available in the shed.
- Separate workers for different age groups and different farms are must.
- Sick persons kept away from the farm.
15. OTHER MANAGEMENTAL PROCEDURES
- Litter material and feathers in shed must be collected and burnt.
- Avoid undue stress to birds.
- Avoid and check spilling and leakage of water, roofs etc.
- Spiting and other bad habits in workers kept in view.
TABLE : HOW TO MAINTAIN BIOSECURITY IN THE FARM
FIGURE: SHOWING HOW INFECTIONS/DISEASES REACH TO THE FARM VIA DIFFERENT MEANS