Authors: Sathiyabama Kannan
Assistant Professor and Head,Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Cuddalore,(TANUVAS)
Director, Centre for Animal Health Studies Madhavaram Milk Colony, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, (TANUVAS), Chennai-51
History: A quail farm with a popualtion of 10,000 Japanese quails in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu reported to have clinical symptoms such as listlessness, stressful constriction of vent at laying, passing of whitish diarrhoea, and sudden mortality. The reported signs were found to be exhibited only by layer quails not by others. Though the same quails have been at laying since January 2008 without any problems, such symptoms were reported to be shown only at the start of third laying period. listened to the history, the farm owner was suggested to bring frail birds if any to the Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Cuddalore, for diagnosis and for offering advice to fight against the disease. Following this, a female quail with a history of said clinical signs but with more morbid status was produced to the centre and was found dead in half hour.
Post Mortem Examinations: opening of the carcass showed bloated up appearance of entire internal organs and emanated foul smelling. Except heart and lung all other organs had lesions. Especially, liver was found damaged and had parchment papers like material outside surface, spleen was unable to be identified as it got damaged. Further, congestion of proventriculus, whole of around 2mm to 3mm wide in gizzard from inside out, intense congestion of rectal wall and intestine were observed. The intestine was found with no traces for internal parasites by microscopical examination of intestinal contents. Around five mature ova and seven or less immature ones found in the oviduct.
Histopathology and Microscopical Examinations: Smal piece of heart, lung, liver and intestine collected in 10% formalin for histopathology and impression smears made from heart, lung, liver and intestines for microscopical examination were sent to Central University Laboratory, Madhavaram Milk Colony, Chennai-51 to identify the cause.
Results: Examined samples by staining and microscopy revealed numerous bipolar organisms ( believed to be of Pasteurella sp.) in heart and liver impression smear and stray amount in lung smear but none was detected in intestinal smear.
Conclusion: On examination of farm, the first reason for such a problem was analysed to be of stress due to nutrition deficiency, could be of infection, and secondly, Ca deficiency. The farmer was adviced to add vitamins, Calcium, and antibiotics in feed/water. Further, investigation of the farm found to have overcome all the said problems following medication, nutrition and mineral supplementation.