MBA (management by being around) And as far as N.D is concerned these both become much more important. MBA includes 1): proper knowledge of condition 2): proper analysis of condition 3):proper decision 4):proper execusion of that decision 5):proper result gatheriing and analysis of result 6):flexible enough to change the decisions when don,t get the expected results. Lacking any one of the above parameters will result in failure(may be small may be large) FACTORS INFLUENCING N.D. AND OTHER INFECTIONS I think N.D and other infections in rearing are coming due to following factors, 1) untrained staff (lacking knowledge + will to do some thing)2) temperature( should not be too low never too high than required standard) 3) ventilation(feeling based but also , always calculated one) 4):water quantity and quality . In early weeks of life chicks required large amount of water also during night too , for ist 5 weeks for half an hour at about 8 hours after the light was off. 5) feed type & amount: always gradual increase not large or small increments , increase in a very gradual way, feed is being increased in very haphazard wayS for ist weeks of life. 6) sanitation of inside and out side of the sheds 7) biosecurity 8) vaccination( keen and thorough observation and properly following of all protocols) 9)proper space 9):litter quality I think if we can manage above given factors we can correct this issue to great extent, each one of these has its own specifications in different age groups and in different climate conditions. Here I just discussed feed amounts we are giving to our birds and resulting in different diseases due to improper, one or many of above given factors. What feed regime I think we have to use 5th week feed standard should be taken as a reference where we should be or near to after the end of 5th week Age Under weight At standard Higher than standard
1 70% of 5th week feed 66% 62% 2 10% 10% 11% 3 10% 7% 7% 4 9% 7% 7% 5 9% 7% 7% Total 108% 97% 94% Too much feed in any week results in metabolic problem or it results in cut down in feed increment in coming weeks which enhances chances of infection due to energy deficiency in those weeks or most probably infection will result in after one week of very high or very low feed increment. I have taken 5th week as reference because we are getting infection upto 5th week of birf life these days. But along with it factors like proper temperature, ventilation , water and vaccination are very important. SOME ADDITIONAL PRACTICES WE MAY DO: 1: Water at mid night for half an hour starting from day 18 to day 42, will lower the stress and will also help in coccidiosis control , as we are not focussing on how much coccidiosis reaction is damaging gut integrity of the bird and making it energy deficient to fight against other diseases even though clear cut coocidiosis is not emerging in the flocks. 2: VIT. E + SELENIUM from the 21st day to end of 6th week to make it more immuno competent whether we find any culling or not. 3: specially focus on uniformity from day 12 to 26 days so that no bird remains feed deficient in coming critical age and there after no grading what so ever untill 35 days of age (but never too big feed stimulation to younger birds too just a gradual increase).
In all cases, spending more time observing how the birds behave in the poultry shed will result in more apt implementation of husbandry and anticipation of latent problems. This spells for a successful attainment of the birds' genetic potential. There are no standardized poultry management factors as each of the poultry flocks will be subjected to different conditions which call for different practice of poultry management. The GUIDES provided by the breeding companies are only that - GUIDES. Success in the individual poultry house will depend on what Dr. Kamran has properly stated " MBA."
Poultry farming in Pakistan has changed from open houses to controlled environment houses during the last decade. Ventilation, in controlled houses, is very critical. Inadequate/excess ventilation predisposes to respiratory diseases. Cleaning and disinfection is easier in environment controlled houses BUT if inadequate, builds up challenge quickly.. ND has been an everlasting threat to Poultry farming in Pakistan. The recent upsurge of ND here may be associated with poorly managed controlled environment houses. To know something is SCIENCE and to translated that knowledge into practice is an ART. Believe it or not, the science and art of control of infectious diseases in poultry is "MBA".
To know something is SCIENCE and to translated that knowledge into practice is an ART. Believe it or not, the science and art of control of infectious diseases in poultry is "MBA".
Poultry in Pak did big achivements from shifting to open houses to controled houses and also in very closed area and also the owner of the some farms ouses has no idea and know how for the biosecurity in this field and even some of them who have the knowledeg they just ignore it like crossing the red traffic light and it hits . you have pointed out some points for this failure but it needs more like a complete disinfection and good biosecurity and good storage of the vaccinces and application methods etc , here one should not forget the Managment that in controled houses you need 24/7 hr good ventilation as mentioned by the Dr AD Anjum Sb . so the summery will be good vaccince /storage /and good Managment . Dont forget good quality of feed and a very good lab for a complete back up . Thanks
Keeping the birds stress-free will help in preventing any kind of infectious disease and ND is not the exception. One more aspect which is normally overlooked in the farm level either knowingly or un-knowingly is the procedure of vaccination. Many a farmer opts for water vaccination. But if the vaccine is mixed with treated water, particularly if it is having antiviral property then the vaccine virus also gets spoiled. Moreover if the salt content in the water is high the vaccine dosenot work. Again those farmers who adopt eye-drop method of vaccination they neglect the temperature factor. the vaccine may get spoiled even during manual vaccination. The normal practice of the farmer is that they ready the vaccine in the droper and finish vaccination at a stretch only when the drops finish in the droper. This definitely degrades the quality of vaccine. Here, we the VETERINARIANS have a role to play in educating the small farmers.
Agree with you and regarding the vaccination practice my recommendation according to my observation and leteratures is to vaccinate the BB at least 3 times by Killed vaccines and 7 times live (LaSota) to achieve more than 11 HI titer and so the ovary will be protected and if infection happined there will be slight decrease in Egg production and also the Egg production retain to normal. Thanks for the nice presentation
Dear Dr. Kamran it is according to the vaccination program for each farm In layer there is ND+IB+EDS before production and in breeder there is the quatro vaccine with IBD so there will be two one at the first three weeks of age and the other in 60 - 70 days of age Best Regards Nadim
Implementation of Scientific knowledge in open or controlled houses is very important for successful poultry farming,bio security is key to control a bacterial or viral disease.Preventing Environmental and gut stress is helpful to control diseases.HI titers should be maintained by a authentic laboratory to keep eye on health status of flock.Multiage and multibreed birds in same area should be avoided.