Good article !! It is a handy referral chart for Maximum Tolerable Concentrations (MTC) of Major Mycotoxins for different animal species @ ppb per Kg. Risk directly depends on level of aflatoxins and presence of other mycotoxins in the feed. For all practical purposes a level of MTC may be termed as safe provided the animals are in healthy condition. Specially in poultry, the degree of susceptibility of Mycotoxin is influenced by many factors. Age : Younger birds are more susceptible. Health : Weak/stressed birds are more susceptible. Feed : Low level of vitamins and amino acids may expose the birds to the problem. Breeder : Breeders are more susceptible than commercial layer. Broilers are more susceptible than the layer birds. Ducks are about 200 times more sensitive than layers & broilers. Easy conversion: 1 ppm = 106 (1 Million i.e. 10 Lakhs) 1 ppb = 109 (1 billion i.e. 100 crores) To convert ppm to ppb – move decimal point 3 places to the right e.g. 0.2 ppm = 200 ppb To convert ppb to ppm – move decimal point 3 places to the left e.g. 1200 ppb = 1.2 ppm Thanks,
Hi I think this article about mycotoxins is of regular nature because these values are discussed earlier in many articles and books.
Good reference point. However, the numbers given for DON for poultry is too high. Recent research has shown that DON can compromise poultry performance at levels as low as 2.5 ppm. Also we need to keep in mind that we never get individual mycotoxins in animal feed. If DON is present, there can be at least 10 other mycotoxins are present which we are not testing for. There are more than 100 trichothecene mycotoxins. Also it is logical to give limits for total fumonisins rather than FB1. Another variable factor is masked mycotoxins. These should be used as only guidelines and mere presence of mold or single mycotoxin should be handled with caution. Never interpret mycotoxin analysis in isolation. It is imp to consider animal symptoms and PM findings in conjunction with mycotoxin analysis report. We need to differentiate mycotoxicoses from other conditions or diseases which is always a challenge.
Dear Mr. Gimeno, Interesting article regarding dose response and mycotoxins in animals. I work with people who have experienced systems indicative of mycotoxicosis from exposure in water damaged buildings. I am curious to know: When dose response guidelines are being established for farm animals, do you all ever do studies of how much mycotoxin enters the animals bodies via the routes of inhalation of airborne dust in the feed? Or how much they are being exposed to via dermal contact of stepping in it? Sharon Kramer
Dear Sharon, Very good question indeed, because is not usual take into consideration the possible airborne mycotoxins contamination which can influence the results in the trials even in a normal mycotoxicosis. However, I have no idea what can be the magnitude of this influence, because nowadays many farms have ventilation and air renewal systems even in the place where the trials with the animals are done. The possibility of airborne mycotoxins contaminations even the exposition to via dermal contact are not taking into consideration when the guidances about the subject are being established. There is a big variability with the airborne mycotoxins contaminations and dermal contact. I know that usually the mycotoxins actually produced in water-damaged building are the macrocyclic trichothecenes (verrucarins, roridins, stratoxins …etc) produced by severals Stachybotrys spp. However, it seems that the toxicity of macrocyclic trichotecenes has not been sufficiently studied, at least for animals, specially for poultry. Regards. Gimeno
I READ WITH GREAT INTEREST YOUR ARTICLE,BUT THE BASIC PROBLEM IS THAT IT IS A VERY COMPLEX PROCEDURE TO ESTABLISH UNIVERSALLY MAXIMUM LEVEL OF MYCOTOXIN THAT ARE TOLERABLE IN ANILMAL FEEDS.IT ACTUALLY DEPENDS NOT ONLY ON THE BREED OR SPECIES OF THE ANILMAL BUT ALSO ON GEOGRAPHICAL FACTOR.FOR EXAMPLE IN AFRICA,VERGITATION THAT MIGHT BE POISONOUS TO A BREED OF CATTLE CALLED ABERDEEN ANGERS ARE GIVEN TO CATTLES IN NIGERIA. SAID THIS,I THINK WE CAN ONLY TALK ABOUT REDUCTION IN MYCOTOXINS IN ANILMAL FEED.MYCOTOXINS ARE FORMIDABLE IN GRAINS AND NUTS.WE CAN DO SOME WASHING AND DRY PROCEDURE IN GRAINS TO REDUCE THE LEVEL OF TOXIN,BUT WE CAN NOT APPLY THE SAME PROCEDURE IN NUTS AS MOST FEED FORMATION ARE NOT USING NUTS PER SE BUT REMINANTS AFTER OIL HAS BEEN EXTRACTED.THE REMINANTS ARE VULNERABLE TO THE FORMATION OF MYCOTOXIN IF IT IS KEPT FOR A LONG TIME.HOW CAN WE KNOW THIS AS OUR SOURCE ARE MOSTLY FROM VERGITABLE OIL MAKING FACTORY.ANYWAY THE BEST ANSWER WOULD BE TO USE THE NUT CAKE AS SOON AS WE GET IT. IN SOME CASES SUN FLOWER IS ADDED TO FEED FORMATION AS ORGANIC REMEDY TO REDUCE THE EFFECT OF MYCOTOXINS IN THE FEED.
Dear Mr. Abideen, I think that I was clear in my comments about the difficulties to establish guidance levels and/or recommendations about mycotoxins. I think also that from legislation, guidance and/or recommendations maximum levels of mycotoxins in feeds, from European Union (EU), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Food Agricultural Organization (FAO) and others, even from my Table 1 in the article, the technical people can establish guidance levels according to the occurrence of mycotoxicological problems in the geographical area were they are working, and taking into account the different factors in that area, as you mention. However, an initial guideline is always necessary. It is obvious that the optimum maximum levels of mycotoxins in feeds and foods are 0, but is also obvious that it is not possible. Some times in several countries, is necessary to decide if the animals die hungry or with a mycotoxicosis. But I agree that using several strategies, the mycotoxins contamination levels in feeds and foods should be reduced. Yours Sincerely. Gimeno
Dear Dr. Shami, Are the aflatoxin contaminations showed in you comments, ppb (micrograms/Kg) or ppm (mg/Kg)? For animals, the use of mycotoxins detoxifier in feeds is a good strategy and practice. On the other hand, the roasting of peanuts at 150-200ºC during 30 minutes, can reduce 40-80% the aflatoxin concentration. The treatment of the peanut with calcium hydroxide-monomethylamine, can reduce the aflatoxin concentration more than 98%. The protein digestibility is 85% (peanut not treated) and 82% (peanut treated). The availability of net protein is 56% (peanut not treated) and 47% (peanut treated). You can consult several detoxification strategies for peanut and peanut butter going to: http://books.google.pt/books?id=Zg9mT9zu3IAC&pg=PA174&lpg=PA174&dq=aflatoxin +detoxification+in+peanut+butter&source=bl&ots=uNE1jDafkd&sig=K5pheSIRhTt61YzKOYFYAellUFY&hl=pt-PT&ei=4UC5SrvBJcOc_Aan4ZTbBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=aflatoxin%20detoxification%20in%20peanut%20butter&f=false In the chapter: Effect of Processing on Aflatoxin Sincerely. Gimeno